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Disclosure and Resolution Programs Exciting Developments, Challenging Barriers Thomas H. Gallagher, MD Professor of Medicine, Bioethics & Humanities University.

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Presentation on theme: "Disclosure and Resolution Programs Exciting Developments, Challenging Barriers Thomas H. Gallagher, MD Professor of Medicine, Bioethics & Humanities University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Disclosure and Resolution Programs Exciting Developments, Challenging Barriers Thomas H. Gallagher, MD Professor of Medicine, Bioethics & Humanities University of Washington On behalf of IL, WA, TX, NY, and Ascension AHRQ PSLR Demonstration Projects and MA planning grant

2 Background Major focus in last decade on disclosing unanticipated outcomes to patients Following unanticipated outcomes, organizations still struggle to: ◦ Communicate effectively with the patient ◦ Learn from what happened ◦ Provide fast, fair financial and non-financial resolution for patients


4 Quality of Actual Disclosures COPIC-large Colorado malpractice insurer 3Rs (Recognize, Respond, Resolve) program for disclosure and compensation, 2007-2009 ◦ 837 Events ◦ 445 patient surveys (55% response rate) ◦ 705 physician surveys (84% response rate)

5 What is the DRP?  Be candid and transparent about unanticipated care outcomes  Conduct a rapid investigation, offer a full explanation, and apologize as appropriate  Where appropriate, provide for the family’s financial needs without requiring recourse to litigation  Build systematic patient safety analysis and improvement into risk management

6 AHRQ Grants with DRP Component StatePI Core DRP componentRelated activities Demonstration Projects ILMcDonald“Seven Pillars” approach at 10 Illinois Hospitals Patient compensation card NY Kluger/Co hn CRP in place at 5 NYC hospitalsEnhance culture, AE reporting Judge-directed negotiation TXThomasDRP in place at 6 UT health campusesPatient engagement in event analysis, resolution Ascension Health HendrichCORE program in place at 6 hospitalsMajor focus on OB safety WAGallagherDRP at 6 institutions, Physicians Insurance A Mutual Company HealthPact-transforming healthcare communication Planning Grants MASandsCreate MA collaborative for DRP implementation Implementation underway using alternate funding. UTGuentherExploring DRP options in UtahCollaborative with Utah stakeholders underway WAGarciaAccelerated Compensation Events

7 DRP Goals Facilitate communication about unanticipated care outcomes (disclosure and reporting) Attend to the emotional needs of patients, families, and providers Create mechanisms for providers, insurers, and others to collaborate around communication, event analysis, and resolution

8 Patient/Family Communication Joint Approach to Resolution Expedited Care Assessment and Review of Event (CARE) DRP Process Physicians Insurance Facility Insurer Other Insurer Action by Facility Risk Manager Study Event (SE) Care team responds to immediate patient needs and provides information then known Involved staff reports SE to Risk Manager Initiates QI investigation using Just Culture approach Initiates support services for patient/family Initiates disclosure coaching and other support services for health care team Contacts other Partners to explain SE and steps taken and initiate collaboration Partners collaborate on approach to evaluation and resolution Partners and involved providers decide on effective approach and timeline for CARE, including internal and/or external expert review to determine: Whether care was reasonable Whether system improvements are needed to prevent recurrence Whether other actions are warranted Partners agree on approach to resolution: What are the patient’s/family’s needs? Will monetary compensation or other remedies be offered? What will be disclosed to patient/family? How will identified system improvements be pursued? Patient/family is notified of findings and approach to resolution: Full explanation of what happened Apology as appropriate Offer of compensation and/or other remedies, or explanation of why no offer is being made Information about any safety improvements

9 The DRP is not: A rush to judgment A rush to settlement Mandatory Telling the patient absolutely everything known about an adverse event Paying patients when care was reasonable Business as usual

10 Potential DRP metrics MetricsMethods Implementation Leader surveys and interviews Case-level data collection User satisfaction Patient surveys Clinician surveys Liability effects Case-level data collection Pre/post comparison of summary- level data Patient safety effects Safety culture survey Case-level data collection Leader surveys and interviews

11 Exciting Developments IRB approvals secured Successful collaborations among diverse stakeholders ◦ DRP as mechanism to improve response to injury that triggers less concern about “tort reform” Growing interest in expanding DRP model at state, institutional level Recognition of DRPs potential for significant cost savings for payers Rising awareness of need for reform at NPDB, state medical board level ◦ Broader implementation of Just Culture concepts

12 Policy/Legal Barriers NPDB State medical boards QI protection

13 Implementation Barriers Reaching consensus on what events qualify for DRP Overcoming mistrust ◦ Within healthcare stakeholders  MD: Is DRP in my best interest? Why be proactive if claim may never materialize?  Malpractice insurers: What cases benefit most from DRP?  Healthcare institutions: Is DRP “inviting claims”? ◦ Outside healthcare: “fox guarding the hen house” Bandwidth challenges for front-line personnel tasked with DRP implementation

14 Scientific Barriers Time horizon problems Small numbers problem Uneven implementation across sites

15 Next steps Exploring options for extending data collection Ongoing work disseminating DRP models to additional states, institutions Continued work on related areas in demonstration projects ◦ Judge-directed negotiation ◦ Patient compensation cards ◦ Expanding patient engagement in response to injury

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