12You want to setup a college saving plan for your daughter You want to setup a college saving plan for your daughter. She is currently 10 years old and will go to the college at age 18. You assume tat when she stars college, she will need at least $100,000 in the bank. How much do you need to save each year in order to have the necessary funds if the current rate of interest is 7%? Assume that end-of-year deposits are made.Given: F=$100,000; N=8 years; and i=7%. Find: ASolution: A=$100,000(A/F,7%,8)=$
13Capital-Recovery Factor (Annuity Factor) Find A, given P, i, and N
14Given: P=$21,061.82; i=6% per year and N=5 years Find: A You borrowed $21, to finance the educational expenses for your senior year of college. The loan will be paid off over five years. The loan carries an interest rate of 6% per year and is to be repaid in equal annual installments over the next five years. Assume that the money was borrowed at the beginning of your senior year and that the first installment will be due a year later.Given: P=$21,061.82; i=6% per year and N=5 yearsFind: ASolution: A=$21,061.82(A/P,6%,5)=$5,000Pi=6%N=5
15Dealing with Gradient Series Engineers frequently encounter situations involving periodic payments that increase or decrease by a constant amount G or constant percentage (growth rate) from period to period.Linear Gradient SeriesGeometric Gradient Series
17Handling Linear Gradient Series Present-Worth Factor: Linear Gradient: Find P, given G, N, and i
18Given: P=$10,000; A1=$1,500, N=5 year and i=10% You borrowed $10,000 from a local bank, with the agreement that you will pay back the loan according to a graduated payment plan. If your first payment is set at $1,500, what would the remaining payment look like at borrowing rate of 10% over five years?Given: P=$10,000; A1=$1,500, N=5 year and i=10%Find: GG2G3G4G5$1,500$10,000
19Solution:Since the loan payment series consists of two parts (1) a $1,500 equal-payment series (2) a strict gradient series (unknown, yet to be determined) we can calculate the present value of each series and equate then with $10,000:$10,000 = $1,500(P/A, 10%,5) + G(P/G, 10%,5)$10,000 = $1,500(3.7908) + G(6.8618)$10,000 = $5, GG = $628.67
20Handling Linear Gradient Series Present-Worth Factor: Find P, given A1, g, i, and N Another kind of gradient series is formed when the series in a cash flow is determined, not by some fixed amount like $500, but by some fixed rate expressed as a percentage. Many engineering economic problems, particularly those relating to construction costs or maintenance costs, involve cash flows that increase or decrease over time by a constant percentage (geometric), a process that is called compound growth. Price changes caused by inflation are good example of such a geometric series.
21If we use g to designate the percentage change in a payment from one period to the next, the magnitude of nth payment An is related to the first payment A1 as follows:The g can take either a positive or a negative sign, depending on the type of cash flow. If g>0, the series will increase, if g<0, the series will decrease.
24Suppose that your retirement benefits during your first year of retirement are $50,000. Assume that this amount is just enough to meet your cost of living during the first year. However, your cost of living is expected to increase at an annual rate of 5%, due to inflation.Suppose you do not expect to receive any cost-of-living adjustment in your retirement pension. Then, some of your future cost of living has to come from your savings other than retirement pension. If your saving account earns 7% interest a year, how much should you set aside in order to meet this future increase in the cost of living over 25 years?Given: A1=$50,000, g=5%, i=7%, N=25 yearsFind: P
26Find the equivalent amount of total benefits paid over 25 years: P=$50,000(P/A,7%,25)=$582,679The required additional saving to meet the future increase in cost of living will be:$940, $582,679= $358,017