OVERVIEW Scientists and Engineers have historically drawn inspiration from Nature: Archytas − self-propelled flying device. Ts’ai Lun − Papermaking process. Sir Isaac Newton − Observed gravity. George de Mestral − Velcro. Natural inspiration is the new wave of robotics
OVERVIEW Bio-inspired vs. Biomimetric In observing a living creature: Bio-inspired robotics attempts to adapt engineering designs based on observations; while Biomimetic robotics tends to replace classical engineering solutions based on the observations.
BIO-INSPIRED MORPHOLOGIES Morphology in robotics is based on Functional objectives: Human-robot interaction Human-friendly robots able to display emotions WE-4RII project - Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan
Shape-shifting Robots: dynamically reconfigure morphology based on circumstances CONRO robot Polymorphic Robotics Laboratory - University of Southern California BIO-INSPIRED MORPHOLOGIES
BIO-INSPIRED SENSORS Bio-inspired visual sensors in robotics: Simple Forced robot motion Obstacle avoidance Inter-robot communication vs. Complex Visual systems use optic-flowmonitoring for navigation tasks in robots Object recognition
BIO-INSPIRED SENSORS Vision Cataglyphis : Optic-flow and odometry monitoring to evaluate travel distances. Humanoid vision: Footstep planning strategies for biped humanoid to navigate on rough terrain and uneven surfaces. A real-time vision-based sensing system and an adaptive footstep planner for Honda ASIMO.
BIO-INSPIRED SENSORS Audision Observation of hearing in animals in robots: Phonotaxis behavior in crickets Khepera robot equipped with a cricket-like auditory system Echolocation and object avoidance Phonotaxis behavior in bats and dolphins Yale Sonar robot uses echolocation behavior of dolphins and bats
BIO-INSPIRED SENSORS Touch Touchbased sensors have been developed for multiple applications: Antenna for rapid maneuvering in motion planning: Observation of cockroach use of antenna as a tactile sensor to control orientation Sprawlette – Stanford University Whiskers for object location and recognition: Determine surface profile of objects close to the robot. Recognition, classification and retrieval.
BIO-INSPIRED SENSORS Above: Cockroach running along wall; Below: Sprawlette exhibits similar behavior
BIO-INSPIRED SENSORS WhiskerBOT Monash University, Australia ii Sensing iii Position Gripper v Pick up i Approach iv Grasp
BIO-INSPIRED SENSORS Touch Human skin as temperature and pressure sensors Tactile sensors sensitive to pressure produce electrical Also produce very high resolution visual signals*
BIO-INSPIRED ACTUATORS Biological Systems have been observed as models for systems to perform: Locomotion: Crawling, walking, wall-climbing, jumping, swimming and flying Grasping Drilling
BIO-INSPIRED ACTUATORS Crawling Biomimetic structures for locomotion in human body Polychaete-like undulatory locomotion robot designed to crawl through the human gut Walking Eight, six, four and two legged robots depending on application. BigDog quadruped robot Runbot
BIO-INSPIRED ACTUATORS Wall-Climbing Robots designed to climb surfaces Stickybot Swimming Biomimetic robots that emulate propulsive systems of fish, dolphins, or seals, Exploit the complex fluid mechanics for propulsion.
BIO-INSPIRED ACTUATORS Madeleine - Imitates the design of a turtle
BIO-INSPIRED ACTUATORS Flying Flapping wings offer several advantages over the fixed wings of today’s reconnaissance drones: flying at low speeds Hovering making sharp turns flying backward
BIO-INSPIRED ACTUATORS Mentor – University of Toronto
BIO-INSPIRED CONTROL ARCHITECTURES Integrating sensors, actuators and control in the design of a simple but complete artificial animal. Behavior-Based robots Learning robots Associative, reinforcement, or imitation learning schemes Motivational system and action selection mechanisms Evolving robots Using appropriate evolutionary algorithms and artificial selection processes to adapt Developing Robots Rule based behavior derivation
COLLECTIVE ROBOTS Bio-inspired collective robotics to discover how decentralized problem solving may be implemented in a group of robots Observation of group behavior of colonial organisms such as ants have led to research in: Collaboration within groups of robots to combine to perform a single task to accomplish a common goal Collaboration within groups of robots to accomplish individual tasks with a common goal
COLLECTIVE ROBOTS SWARMBOT an aggregate of s-bots self-organizing and self-assembling explore, navigate, and transport heavy objects
BIO-HYBRID ROBOTS Limitations in present-day engineering capability makes it attractive to integrate the needed biological component to create a bio-hybrid robot. Physarum polycephalum Used to control the movement of a hexapod robot Specialized motion planning control. Rhesus monkey Connects monkeys brain to a robotic arm. Animal controls robotic arm through visual feedback and brain signals.
BIO-HYBRID ROBOTS BIOTELE A monkey brain controlling a robotic arm
DISCUSSION Bio-inspired solutions to robotics have proved helpful as explained in this presentation. Future robots are likely to be engineered to handle survival issues and unpredictable environments as animals do. Progress in biological knowledge and interdisciplinary collaboration is critical to progress.