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Drug Abuse in Sports: Causes and Cures Mark H. Anshel Chapter 20 “It’s a good day for baseball. Nobody wants an uneven playing field. I’m glad this happened.

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Presentation on theme: "Drug Abuse in Sports: Causes and Cures Mark H. Anshel Chapter 20 “It’s a good day for baseball. Nobody wants an uneven playing field. I’m glad this happened."— Presentation transcript:

1 Drug Abuse in Sports: Causes and Cures Mark H. Anshel Chapter 20 “It’s a good day for baseball. Nobody wants an uneven playing field. I’m glad this happened. You want everybody on the same page. We shouldn’t be competing against guys who use drugs like that. You always want to compete on the same level. That’s all I want. That’s all everyone else wants. Today is bad for baseball and the fans. But as a player, this is what you want.” Boston Red Sox star Dustin Pedroia in response to the suspensions by MLB Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

2 History The use of drugs in sport is NOT new Ancient Greeks (3 rd century B.C.) ingested certain plants before races believing it would give them an edge in competition 1976 International Olympic Committee started widespread drug testing and penalized athletes for testing positive Even with present more rigorous testing, drug use has continued to grow among both the world’s best and less elite athletes Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

3 Why are certain substances banned from competitive sport, and why should sport administrators, coaches, parents of athletes, and athletes themselves be concerned about the use of drugs categorized as “performance-enhancing”? Drug use by athletes: may cause physical and psychological harm often violate state and federal laws is considered cheating and violates the team rules and organizational policies of almost every sport contaminates performance results, which are obtained by unnatural means. Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

4 Two Categories of Drug Use Performance-Enhancing Drugs Intent is to improve performance E.g., anabolic steroids, narcotic analgesics, beta blockers Recreational Drugs Alter the state of mind with no intention of improving performance E.g., marijuana, cocaine, heroin Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

5 How prevalent is drug use among competitive athletes? 2012 NCAA study, reported findings from 20,474 student- athletes across 23 sports showed within the past 12 months: 3.7% admitted using amphetamines 0.4% indicated using anabolic steroids Less than 1% used ephedrine 83% drank alcohol 22.6% used marijuana 3.3 used of narcotics 6.4% used adderall or ritalin without a prescription 4.9% used of Vicodin, Oxycontin or Percocet without a prescription Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

6 Doping The act of ingesting banned drugs The IOC says, “The administering or use of substances in any form alien to the body or of physiological substances in abnormal amounts and with abnormal methods by healthy persons with the exclusive aim of attaining an artificial and unfair increase of performance in competition.” Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

7 Legal Substances Alcohol Nicotine (e.g., tobacco products) Diet regimens (e.g., carbohydrate loading) Amino acids Caffeine (within limits) Antidepressants Vitamins Supplements such as creatine, human growth hormone (HGH), and tetrahydrogestrinone (THG) have been banned by some sport organization Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

8 Anabolic Steroids Best-known category of performance- enhancing drug Improves strength and power Increases male hormone androgen and decreases female hormone estrogen Steroids enhance recovery, build skeletal muscle tissue Used for medicinal purposes to promote muscle growth and tissue repair as part of injury rehabilitation (legal) Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

9 Harmful Effects of Steroids When testosterone levels become too high, the hypothalamus in the brain starts to shut down the body processes involving the hormone Females: increase facial and body hair, lower the voice, increase muscularity and strength, reproductive problems Males: stimulation and maintenance of the sex organs, reduced facial and body hair, reduced sperm production, and impotence  injuries to muscles, tendons, ligaments Adolescents: stunted growth Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

10 Harmful Effects of Steroids (cont.) Liver cancer, high blood pressure, premature heart disease, heart attack, stroke Roid Rage – heightened, uncontrolled aggression May appear as child abuse, domestic violence, suicide, attempted murder Steroids are addictive – psychologically and physiologically Clinical depression when stop use Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

11 Anabolic Steroids: Drug Holidays Athletes attempt to overcome above issues by “pyramiding” or “stacking” Pyramiding: Beginning with lower dose, increasing to maximum dose and then tapering down Stacking: Using numerous drugs and varying the dosage throughout the cycle No scientific evidence to support either technique to be more effective or to minimize harmful side effects Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

12 Stimulants Increase the rate of heart, nervous, and respiratory system Enhance performance by increasing alertness or weight loss (amphetamines) to compete at lower weight Psychomotor - Amphetamines and diet supplements Sympathomimetic amines - Stimulate sympathetic and autonomic nervous system Hallucinogens - Recreational/mind altering drugs Central nervous system - Ephedrine, and many over the counter stimulants including caffeine in high amounts Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

13 Hallucinogens Influence the individual’s perceptions of incoming stimuli by slowing response and decision-making time, and inhibiting attentional focusing Actually impairs sport performance Stimulants (e.g., cocaine) – increase somatic arousal Narcotic analgesics (e.g., marijuana, LSD, PCP) –reduce pain (as an anti-inflammatory) and anxiety (as a sedative) These drugs are also against the laws of most countries Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

14 Narcotic Analgesics Used by athletes as pain suppressants and enable an injured competitor to continue playing despite tissue damage and injury Anti-inflammatory effect Can also slow performance due to a sedative effect Codeine, heroin, opium, morphine Harmful effects = gastrointestinal disturbances, physical and psychological dependence, and depressed respiration, including respiratory arrest Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

15 Beta-Adrenergic Blockers Aid performance by slowing the heart rate, decreasing anxiety, and steadying natural body tremors Used predominantly in rifle/pistol shooting, archery, bowling, golf Harmful effects = bronchospasms, CNS disturbances, hypotension, impotence Sport adverse effects: interfere with high intensity, longer endurance tasks. Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

16 Diuretics Increase the rate water and salt leave the body as urine Jockeys, wrestlers, and boxers use diuretics to make weight for a competition Harmful effects = nausea, stroke, heat exhaustion, impairs thermoregulatory control, blood clotting, reduced blood volume, and muscle cramps Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

17 Caffeine Caffeine increases alertness and arousal, thereby preventing or overcoming mental and physical fatigue Prolongs endurance performance and high-intensity short- duration exercise Moderate caffeine intake commensurate with less than 18 ounces of coffee (IOC) Harmful effects = acts like a diuretic, so combined with insufficient water intake, athletes internal body temperature rises inducing premature fatigue and dangerous heat-related illnesses Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

18 Blood Doping Removing one liter of the athlete’s blood 1-2 months before competition and freeze it, then inject red blood cells back into the athlete before competition Increases oxygen uptake and thus aerobic (endurance) performance Lasts 2 weeks Harmful effects = Hepatitis B or C as well as the HIV virus if blood samples get mixed up Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

19 Erythropoietin (Epo) Another kind of blood doping Ingest EPO – naturally secreted by the kidneys in response to hypoxia that stimulate production of red blood cells Enhances the body’s ability to transport oxygen to peripheral exercising muscle Reduces onset of muscular fatigue and improves regulation of internal body temperature, thus providing an unfair advantage Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

20 Creatine Regarded as both a nutritional and physiological ergogenic aid NOT considered a steroid Assumed safe in reasonable amounts Legally available in health stores and fitness clubs Creatine supplementation may have a beneficial effect only in certain types of performance like repetitive, high- intensity, very short-term tasks with brief recovery periods Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

21 Human Growth Hormone (HGH) and Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) HGH is naturally secreted through the pituitary gland, but has also been created through DNA technology Medically used to treat HGH deficiency, Turner’s syndrome, and for relief from excessive burns It increases body mass while reducing fat mass Mixed evidence on performance enhancement Harmful effects = skull thickens, forehead and eyebrow ridge becomes especially prominent; hands and feet grow out of proportion with body GHB stimulates the release of human growth hormone Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

22 Rationale for Anti-Drug Policy in Sport Legal, ethical, and medical issues: Violates state and federal laws if use for non-medical purposes Cheating -- violates team rules and organizational policies Allowing athletes to ruin their health for short-term gain is immoral May cause athletes physical and psychological harm Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

23 How Widespread Is Drug Abuse in Sport? Anecdotal Evidence Information provided by individuals based on their own experiences or perceptions 50% of athletes in high-performance sports…coaches passively or actively encouraging drug use…examples from history Scientific Evidence Centered primarily on performance-enhancing drugs like anabolic steroids Asking athletes to honestly self-report drugs use is very difficult, if not impossible Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

24 Likely Causes of Drug Abuse in Sport Physical Causes Enhance sport performance Cope with pain and injury rehabilitation Weight control Psychological Causes Stress and anxiety Boredom Personal problems Low self-confidence and self-esteem Superman (Adonis) complex Negative Perfectionism Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

25 Causes of Drug Abuse (cont.) Social Causes Peer pressure and acceptance Models (particularly with adolescents) Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

26 Strategies for Controlling Drug Abuse Depends on: The individual’s perceived needs for using The type of drug usage The sport’s physical demands Situational factors Athletes share similar psychological demands and performance requirements, so many of the issues can be applied to competitors from various sports, skill levels, genders, and cultures Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

27 Strategies for Controlling Drug Abuse (cont.) Regulating drug use starts with organizational policy BUT the coach is the one person who has the most credibility with the athlete and who is the most important agent in preventing drug use on the team Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

28 Cognitive Approaches for Controlling Drug Abuse Influence the athletes’ behaviors and attitudes intellectually and psychologically through verbal and nonverbal communication Provide education Discuss ethical issues Recognize the athletes’ use of drugs Build confidence and self-esteem Professional counseling Motivational Interviewing Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

29 Behavioral Approaches for Controlling Drug Abuse Shape the environment to control and influence subsequent behavior Teach sport skills and offer positive feedback Develop and implement a drug policy and plan of action Have a continuous, random drug-testing program Use behavioral contracting Use a support group Invite guest speakers Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.

30 Intervention Models for Regulating Drug Use in Sport Drugs in Sport Deterrence Model (DSDM) Influencing the athlete’s decision about using banned substances by providing the possible and likely consequences of using banned substances Disconnected Values Model (DVM) Assist athletes in acknowledging that taking drugs, whether it is for performance-enhancing or recreational purposes, is a negative habit that has benefits, but also dire costs and long-term consequences Encouraging athletes to acknowledge the disconnect between their values (competitiveness, fairness, health, etc.) and their conscious decision to ingest substances they know to be illegal and unhealthy Copyright © 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.


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