Presentation on theme: "UAS coming home UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEMS PROMISE LOW-COST REMOTE-SENSING CAPABILITIES AND MORE… "We are not darkening the skies yet, but we are poised.""— Presentation transcript:
UAS coming home UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEMS PROMISE LOW-COST REMOTE-SENSING CAPABILITIES AND MORE… "We are not darkening the skies yet, but we are poised." — Richard Christiansen, vice-president of NASA contractor Sierra Lobo Inc.
General Atomics Predator B (Reaper) firing a Hellfire missile. First deployed in 2007, the Predator B has a range of 1,150 miles, a maximum altitude of 50,000 feet, and a payload of 3,850 pounds. Hand-launching an Aerovironment RQ- 11B Raven. The Raven has a range of 6.2 miles, endurance of minutes and carries color and infrared cameras. UAS at war: attack and reconnaissance
The Northrop Grumman RQ-4 Global Hawk has a wingspan of feet, weighs 32,250 lbs. and can fly over 14,000 miles at an altitude of 60,000 feet. AeroVironment’s Nano Hummingbird (in development) has a wingspan of 6.5 inches and weighs 0.67 ounces. From large to small…
UAS allow missions to be conducted without putting human pilots at risk. UAS use less than 20 percent of the fuel used by a manned aircraft. UAS are more environmentally friendly because they require fewer materials to build and are easier to dispose of. UAS make less noise in flight. Advantages of UAS
UAS can fly safely at very low altitude, allowing for precise measurements or application of fertilizer or other materials. UAS can fly repeated missions in adverse weather conditions for up to 30 hours at a time. UAS can be programmed to fly precise flight paths, allowing the use of multiple devices for more rapid mission completion. Advantages of UAS
Potential domestic commercial uses Oil and mineral exploration Pipeline surveillance Infrastructure analysis Crop analysis Crop spraying Transpor t
Pipeline surveillance Uses infrared cameras to scan pipelines for temperature differences. Modular sensors can also detect radiation, gas and chemical leaks. Data can be recorded or transmitted in real time. UAVs cost under $100,000. Manned helicopter rates are about $3,000 per hour. The Aeryon Scout weighs 2.7 lbs., and can fly in wind gusts of up to 50 mph. It can be airborne for 25 minutes at a time. Map- based operation allows out-of-sight flights.
Targeted crop spraying Uses less chemicals than ground spraying or manned aircraft. Operates at 10 percent the cost of a manned helicopter. Effective with uneven terrain. Limits human exposure to chemicals. Currently 2,500 operators in Japan. Being tested at U.C. Davis. Yamaha’s easy-to-pilot RMAX flies for an hour at a time, spraying liquid or granular chemicals. Priced from $86,000-$1 million.
Crop analysis Multispectral cameras are used to gather data reflecting the health of crops. UAS can conduct operations less expensively than manned aircraft and satellites. Unlike satellites, UAS can be deployed on demand and operations will not be affected by cloud cover. When data is combined with soil testing and field scouting, crop prescriptions can be generated quickly. Infestations and disease outbreaks can be detected early through regular scans.
Oil and mineral exploration Lidar, high-resolution cameras, multispectral sensors and magnetometers are being used to perform a variety of geodetic surveys for oil and mineral exploration. Aerial photography at project/prospect scale. High resolution digital elevation models at project scale and for integration into 3D GIS models. Multispectral/hyperspectral scanning for regolith and mineral mapping.
Transport First deployed in December 2011, the K-Max has conducted hundreds of operations. The vehicle can carry a payload of 6,000 pounds at sea level and can optionally be flown by a human pilot. The K-MAX a joint project of Lockheed Martin and Kaman Aircraft, is the Marine Corp’s first unmanned helicopter designed for resupplying troops in remote locations. Estimated price: $5.1 million Payload: 6,000 lbs. at sea level Range: 1,152 miles Can optionally be flown by human pilots.
Growing array of sensors appropriate for UAS High-resolution digital cameras Infrared and thermal imaging cameras Hyper-spectral imaging systems Lidar (light/radar) Cesium or potassium magnetometers for magnetic mapping Quantum cascade lasers for ethane detection Miniature synthetic-aperture radar (SAR)
In 2012, Congress passed legislation calling on the FAA to write rules by 2015 that would govern the commercial operation of drones. The agency in 2009 created a Unmanned Aircraft Program Office. Once a regulatory framework is in place, the FAA estimates, 7,500 commercial drones will be viable within five years. Current FAA regulations offer two avenues for approval for UAV operations.
FAA Certificate of Authorization Operators can obtain a Certificate of Authorization (COA) for public aircraft, which are those that are owned by the U.S. government or a state. Routine operation of UAVs over densely populated areas is prohibited. Most COAs require coordination with an air traffic control facility. The FAA may require an active transponder on the aircraft if it operates in certain types of airspace. An observer on the ground or in an accompanying chase plane must maintain visual contact with the UAV. There were 327 COAs active as of Feb. 15, 2013.
FAA test site applications The FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012 requires the agency to select six UAS test sites to study the safety of UAS and certify commercial drones for use in the national airspace. The FAA is expected to name its selection of six test sites in December The state coalition bidding for testing is led by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory at Richland and Innovate Washington, the state agency that promotes technology innovation. In Washington state, a coalition of agencies and organizations is bidding to create the Pacific Northwest Unmanned Aerial Systems Flight Center at the Grant County International Airport near Moses Lake.
Sense and avoid A key to wider deployment of UAS is the implementation of reliable and affordable sense-and-avoid systems. Untethering UAS from line-of-sight operations would greatly expand the potential uses of UAS. Basic technologies are already available, as has been demonstrated by programs such as the European MIDCAS, which uses electro- optical, infrared and radar sensors.
Sense and avoid MIDCAS is a four-year, $65 million project that is expected by 2014 to deliver an automated sense-and-avoid system that will not depend on transponders. While it is being designed to integrate ADS-B, MIDCAS also includes two visible band electro-optical cameras and one infrared camera for aircraft to use in identifying other aircraft. In addition, the team's developers are designing image- processing algorithms, processing units and integration with on-board avionics.
Sense and avoid Engineering challenges remain – to bring the equipment down in size and weight to be feasible for UAS of all sizes. Secure sense-and-avoid systems will rely on ADS-B (automatic dependent surveillance- broadcast) transponders, which not only broadcast aircraft location in real time, they also deliver information on altitude and velocity. The FAA will be requiring the majority of aircraft operating in U.S. airspace to be equipped with ADS-B by January 1, Sagetech ADS-B transponders measure just 3.5” x 1.8” x 0.7” and weigh only 3.5 ounces.
The emerging markets AUVSI (Association for Unmanned Vehicle Systems International) has estimated the industry could contribute more than $80 billion to the U.S. economy over a decade. It's not too soon for potential operators to begin preparing for operations. Identifying potential applications and matching potential applications to clients. Keeping up with rapidly changing technologies. New sensors mean new applications. Changing price points change potential applications. One link in the chain of big data integrated through GIS.