Presentation on theme: "Splash Screen. Chapter Intro 1 Current events in Africa south of the Sahara can best be understood by knowing about the region’s diverse peoples, its."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter Intro 1 Current events in Africa south of the Sahara can best be understood by knowing about the region’s diverse peoples, its histories, and its cultures.
Chapter Intro 2 Section 1: The Sahel Places reflect the relationship between humans and the physical environment. The Sahel, at the edge of the Sahara, influences the ways of life in this subregion.
Chapter Intro 3 Section 2: East Africa Places reflect the relationship between humans and the physical environment. East Africa’s peoples, history, and cultures have been influenced by its location on the Atlantic coast.
Chapter Intro 4 Section 3: West Africa The characteristics and distribution of cultures influence human systems. West Africa’s religions and social structures play a major role in people’s daily lives.
Chapter Intro 5 Section 4: Central Africa Culture influences people’s perceptions of places and regions. While indigenous peoples built societies in response to the natural environment, European powers exploited the region.
Chapter Intro 6 Section 5: Southern Africa Geography is used to interpret the past, understand the present, and plan for the future. Knowledge of southern Africa’s natural resources and colonial past helps one fully know the region.
Section 1-GTR The Sahel The Sahel, at the edge of the Sahara, influences the ways of life in this subregion.
Section 1 The changing physical environment and the many diverse ethnic groups have shaped population patterns in the Sahel. Population Patterns The people: –Mandé people of Senegal and Mali –Wolof of Senegal
Section 1 –Hausa of Niger –Fulani –Berber Population Patterns (cont.)
Section 1 Population Patterns (cont.) Density and distribution: –Population density is unevenly distributed. –Average population density is about 103 people per square mile. –Sudan has the highest density. Muslim Population
Section 1 The physical environment and the relative location of the Sahel have drawn together diverse cultures that continue to influence the subregion. History and Government First civilizations: –Egyptian civilization –The kingdom of Kush
Section 1 History and Government (cont.) Empires and colonization: –The Mali Empire –Songhai Empire –Complete European control by 1914 –Colonies gained independence by 1950s African Kingdoms and Empires
Section 1 History and Government (cont.) Sudan today—a division: –North—Arab-speaking Muslims; Islamic- oriented government –South—live in rural areas; subsistence economy; secular government
Section 1 Although diverse, the cultures of the Sahel region share many similarities. Culture The arts—African art—often expressing traditional religious beliefs—comes in many forms, from ritual masks to rhythmic drum music to folktales. Family life—strong family ties valued.
Section 1 Culture (cont.) Language—several African language groups: Afro-Asiatic, Nilo-Saharan, Congo-Kordofanian Religion—Islam Education—low school enrollment and literacy rates Health care—poor health care
Section 2-GTR East Africa East Africa’s peoples, history, and cultures have been influenced by its location on the Atlantic coast.
Section 2 The populations of East Africa have been shaped by their location along the long coast-line of the Indian Ocean. Population Patterns In East African countries today, one ethnic group is the majority in a country.
Section 2 Population Patterns (cont.) The people: –The Bantu—Uganda and Tanzania –Hutu—Rwanda and Burundi
Section 2 Population Patterns (cont.) Density and distribution: –Distribution is highly uneven due to land and climate. –City dwellers, nomads, and farmers live in this region. Africa South of the Sahara: Population Density
Section 2 Throughout much of its history, East Africa’s location has attracted people from many continents. History and Government Early peoples and kingdoms: –Possible place of origin for all humankind –Kingdom of Axum –Djibouti people
Section 2 History and Government (cont.) –Arab traders –Persians European colonization: –Britain, France, Germany, Portugal –British doctor and missionary David Livingstone
Section 2 History and Government (cont.) Colonialism created enormous problems for Africa’s people. European powers granted colonies independence in the 1960s. However, the newly independent countries faced (and still face) internal and external strife.
Section 2 Common elements such as language and religion connect the cultures of East Africa. Culture Language—Congo-Kordofanian, Nilo-Saharan, Afro- Asiatic; English and French Religion—Christian or Muslim Education—levels of education vary throughout the region; few complete secondary education.
Section 2 Culture (cont.) Health care—many problems exist. The arts—visual arts of masks and textiles; forms of music, dance, and oral traditions Ways of life in East Africa are as varied as the ethnic groups who live there.
Section 3-GTR West Africa West Africa’s religions and social structures play a major role in people’s daily lives.
Section 3 The location and densities of West Africa’s populations affect people’s way of life. Population Patterns The people: –Hausa –Yoruba
Section 3 Population Patterns (cont.) Density and distribution: –Distribution is very uneven, with most people living along the coast and river plains. –Africa’s rate of urbanization is the world’s fastest (although only 44% live in cities). Urbanization in West Africa
Section 3 West Africa’s history has been shaped by indigenous and outside forces, each with their own cultures. History and Government Early empires: –Ghana Empire –Mali Empire
Section 3 History and Government (cont.) The colonial era: –1400s—Portuguese set up trading posts along the African coast. –1600s and 1700s—Europeans were actively trading with Africans, including slaves. –French colonizers were trying to end slavery during this time as well.
Section 3 West African culture has been shaped by hundreds of years of European and Arab influences. Culture Language—hundreds of languages are spoken; English, French, Arabic, Yoruba Religion—Islam, Christianity, traditional African religions Education—inconsistent throughout the region
Section 3 Culture (cont.) Health care—uneven and limited The arts—music and dance, weaving, masks, sculptures
Section 4-GTR Central Africa While indigenous peoples built societies in response to the natural environment, European powers exploited the region.
Section 4 Groups of people throughout Central Africa usually have a shared culture, depending on where they live. Population Patterns The people: –This region is home to hundreds of ethnic groups. –Most people exist by subsistence agriculture or raising cattle.
Section 4 Population Patterns (cont.) –Fulani –Bantu –Fang –Mbuti
Section 4 Population Patterns (cont.) Density and distribution: –This region is the least densely populated on the continent. –More densely populated areas are in the Republic of the Congo, Cameroon, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Section 4 Central Africa was the location of early migrations and, later, of European systems of slavery, colonization, and plantation economies. History and Government Early settlement: –Bantu-speaking people established settlements in the region by A.D. 800.
Section 4 History and Government (cont.) Slavery: –Huge numbers of people from the African interior were sold into slavery. The Atlantic Slave Trade
Section 4 History and Government (cont.) European colonization: –It was not until the 1800s that large areas of Central Africa were colonized. –By 1960, all the French colonies had become independent countries.
Section 4 History and Government (cont.) Instability after independence: –People in most Central African countries experienced periods of ethnic strife, harsh rule, and human rights abuses after independence.
Section 4 The many diverse cultures of Central Africa share similar experiences as a result of geography, their history, and their current situation. Culture Language—700 local languages in the Democratic Republic of the Congo alone; French; pidgin The arts—Mangbetu pottery, sculpture
Section 4 Culture (cont.) Religion and family life are intertwined— numerous and diverse religions, but they share many common elements. Some Christianity found as well. Education—many systems are strained. Health care—this is also strained in most areas.
Section 5-GTR Southern Africa Understanding southern Africa’s natural resources and colonial past helps one fully know the region.
Section 5 Southern Africa is undergoing significant population changes as a result of its colonial history and present challenges. Population Patterns The people: –Sena –Bantu –Swazi
Section 5 Population Patterns (cont.) –Zulu –San –Afrikaners Ethnic Composition of South Africa
Section 5 Population Patterns (cont.) Density and distribution: –Population densities vary widely across the region. –Many people are moving to urban areas to work in gold and diamond mines. –Despite population explosions in parts of Africa, AIDS is expected to reduce the populations of many of the region’s countries. The State of HIV/AIDS
Section 5 Situations created by colonial rule challenge southern Africa today and will continue to do so into the future. History and Government Early cultures: –Zulu –Bantu
Section 5 History and Government (cont.) European colonization: –Arabs and Europeans settled in southern Africa for economic reasons. –The Portuguese controlled Angola, Mozambique, Comoros, and Mauritius.
Section 5 History and Government (cont.) Challenges after independence: –Postcolonial rule has been a difficult adjustment for most African countries. –Exceptions—Botswana, Mauritius –Apartheid was ended in the early 1990s, but problems continue today.
Section 5 While countries in southern Africa enjoy more freedoms under independence, they face serious economic and health-care problems. Culture Language—African languages; English, French, Afrikaans Religion—Christianity as well as traditional religions
Section 5 Culture (cont.) Education—since independence, higher education has expanded. Health care—AIDS has reached epidemic proportions and most can’t afford drug treatments. The arts—indigenous crafts, music, and dancing Leisure—playing games and spending time with family
VS 1 Population Patterns Africa south of the Sahara has the world’s highest birthrates and death rates. The high death rate is the result of poverty, disease, and conflict. Despite high death rates, the population of Africa south of the Sahara is growing faster than any other region of the world.
VS 2 Urban Growth Although Africa south of the Sahara is one of the least urbanized regions of the world, it has the world’s fastest rate of urbanization. Cities have better job opportunities, health care, and public services that attract people from rural areas. Most cities in the region are built along the coast, along rivers, or in areas rich in natural resources. Almost all of the major cities began as centers of trade.
VS 3 Historical Legacy In its early history, Africa was home to major trading kingdoms, like Songhai, Ghana, Mali, Kush, and Axum. As Europeans began exploring the globe, they traded with African rulers for gold and other goods. Later they also traded for enslaved people. The European powers later divided Africa into colonies. They extracted resources and promoted European culture at the expense of traditional African ways.