Presentation on theme: "Warm up 1. Differentiate between infrasonic and ultrasonic. 1. Differentiate between infrasonic and ultrasonic. 2. Compare and contrast a rarefaction and."— Presentation transcript:
Warm up 1. Differentiate between infrasonic and ultrasonic. 1. Differentiate between infrasonic and ultrasonic. 2. Compare and contrast a rarefaction and a compression. 2. Compare and contrast a rarefaction and a compression. 3. What is the source of all sounds? 3. What is the source of all sounds? Homework Read and notes pg – 26.9 Supplement pg.
SOUND Chapter 26
THE ORIGIN OF SOUND All sounds are produced by the vibrations of objects A.k.a a disturbance Waves are created by some form of a disturbance or vibration
THE ORIGIN OF SOUND As the particles are moved from their rest position, they exert a force on the adjacent particles Then transfer their kinetic energy Thus sound energy travels outward from the source.
Mechanical wave Mechanical waves require a medium in order to transport their energy Sound waves are incapable of traveling through a vacuum Examples: Slinky waves, water waves, stadium waves and sound waves
creating a pressure disturbance consisting of an alternating pattern of compressions and rarefactions Wave propagation
For example: a vibrating guitar string forces surrounding air molecules to be compressed and expanded The amount of energy transferred to the medium is equal to the amplitude squared of the wave
Pressure Wave? In terms of pressure what is a sound wave composed of? Illustration of the pressure- time fluctuations Do not conclude that sound is a transverse wave which has crests and troughs
Longitudinal Wave Definition?
Longitudinal Wave parts RAREFACTION a disturbance in air (or matter) in which the pressure is lowered The transfer of a low pressure air front Simulated guitar string
Longitudinal Wave parts COMPRESSION A pulse of compressed air a disturbance in air (or matter) in which the pressure is increased The transfer of a high pressure air front
Whitney quickly and forcefully opens the door. Predict what will happen to the papers Whitney quickly and forcefully opens the door. Predict what will happen to the papers The air in the car will be rarefied and the papers will go flying. The air in the car will be rarefied and the papers will go flying. Bobby sees this, gets very upset. He forcefully closes the door. Now, predict what will happen to the papers Bobby sees this, gets very upset. He forcefully closes the door. Now, predict what will happen to the papers The air in the Hummer will be compressed, and the papers will go flying again! The air in the Hummer will be compressed, and the papers will go flying again! Bobby’s hummer is a mess! There are papers piled up on the seats. Whitney, decides to straighten up.
Why are sound waves longitudinal waves? How is wavelength measured?.
MEDIA THAT TRANSMIT SOUND Sound can travel through: Air Solids Liquids Sound cannot travel through… A vacuum There is nothing to compress & expand
The two main factors affecting the speed of sound… The medium The temperature Minor factors Humidity Air pressure
Density & the Speed of sound The speed of sound is not always the same It is easier for sound waves to go through solids than through liquids because… The closer the molecules are to each other the tighter their bonds, the less time it takes for them to pass the sound to each other
Density & the Speed of sound Density affects the speed of sound in a material Density describes the mass of a substance per volume Material Speed of Sound Rubber60 m/s Air at 40 o C355 m/s Air at 20 o C343 m/s Lead1210 m/s Gold3240 m/s Glass4540 m/s Copper4600 m/s Aluminum6320 m/s
Temperature and the speed of sound Heat, like sound, is a form of kinetic energy higher temperatures have more energy, therefore they vibrate faster molecules vibrating faster means, sound waves can travel more quickly If no temperature is stated we will use 340 m/s
Speed of Sound The speed of sound in dry air is given approximately by V sound in air = ( * T c ) 0 o C speed of sound is approx. 331 m/s or o C speed of sound is approx. 343 m/s or 769 mi/hr If no temperature is stated we will use 340 m/s
THE SPEED OF SOUND The speed of sound is slower than the speed of light Speed of Light = 3.00 x 10 8 m/s
How far away is the storm? If you see a lightning flash and five seconds later you hear the thunder how far away is the storm? If v = d / t then d = v * t d = 340 m/sec * 5.0 sec d = 1700 meters away Assume speed of sound to be 340 m/sec or.21 miles/sec d = 0.21 miles/sec * 5.0 sec d = 1.1 miles away Extra practice: Suppose the delay is 8 seconds.
Frequency vs. Speed Frequency refers to the… number of vibrations that an individual particle makes in a specific period of time Frequency refers to how often a wave passes through a certain point Speed refers to how fast a wave passes through the point.
PITCH & FREQUENCY Pitch – impression of frequency Some might say the two are synonymous High-pitched vs. Low-Pitched
NATURAL FREQUENCY All objects have a natural frequency or set of frequencies at which they vibrate A natural frequency is one at which minimum energy is required to force vibrations Natural frequency depends on factors such as the density, elasticity and shape of an object
FORCED VIBRATION Forced vibration is when one object is connected to a larger one, forcing its sound vibrations on the larger surface The resulting sound is relatively louder
RESONANCE Resonance – when the frequency of a forced vibration of an object matches the object’s natural frequency, there is a dramatic increase in amplitude. To resonate, objects need a force to pull them back to their starting position For ex: pumping a swing in rhythm with its natural frequency produces larger amplitudes.
Energy Transport and the Amplitude of a Wave A wave transports energy along a medium without transporting matter The amount of energy carried by a wave is related to the amplitude of the wave
Intensity The amount of energy which is transported past a given area of the medium per unit of time The greater the amplitude, the greater the rate at which energy is transported, and therefore the more intense the sound wave
LOUDNESS Loudness is a physiological sensation sensed in the brain It is subjective, but relates to sound intensity Intensity of sound is measured with the decibel (dB) 0 dB is the threshold of hearing for a normal ear An increase of 10 dB means that it increase by a factor of dB = 10 x 1 dB 20 dB = 10 x 10 dB 30 dB = 10 x 10 x 10 dB
Decibel quiz 2. The decibel level that can break bones in the ear 2. (150)dB 1. (130)dB 3. (30)dB 1. The decibel level that causes pain 3. The decibel level that is 1000 times more powerful than 10 dB
Common dB levels
Human Hearing Thresholds Infrasonic frequencies below 20 hertz Ultrasonic frequencies above 20,000 hertz We cannot hear these sounds
Decibel History A bel (symbol B) is a unit of measure of ratios Invented by engineers of the Bell Telephone Laboratory, it was originally called the transmission unit or TU Renamed in 1923 in honor of the laboratory's founder and telecommunications pioneer Alexander Graham Bell Deci (symbol d) is the metric prefix meaning ten
Reflection of Sound Sound reflects or bounces from all surfaces-walls, ceiling, floor, furniture, and people An echo is reflected sound Sound and light follow the same rules about reflections
Reflection of Sound Acoustics the study of the reflective properties upon surfaces Reverberations Persistence of a sound, as in a echo, due to multiple reflections
Reflection of Sound Reflection of sound in a room makes it sound lively and full In a concert hall, highly reflective surfaces are often placed behind and above the stage to direct sound out to an audience
Reflection of Sound When sound reflects off a special curved surface called a parabola it will bounce out in a straight line no matter where it originally hits Many stages are designed as parabolas so the sound will go directly into the audience, instead of bouncing around on stage
Example: Parabolic Stage Location: HOLLYWOOD BOWL
Reflection of Sound If the parabola is closed off by another curved surface, it is called an ellipse If the parabola is closed off by another curved surface, it is called an ellipse Sound will travel from one focus to the other, no matter where it strikes the wall Sound will travel from one focus to the other, no matter where it strikes the wall A whispering gallery is designed as an ellipse A whispering gallery is designed as an ellipse
I n here if you and a friend stand in opposite corners, as if being punished, you can carry on a whispered conversation that others can’t hear Located in Grand Central Station Example: Ellipse Design
Refraction or (bending) of Sound Sound waves are refracted or bent when parts of a wave front travel at different speeds this happens in uneven winds or… when sound is traveling through air of uneven temperatures
Refraction of Sound On a warm day the waves tend to bend away from the warm ground… making it appear that the sound does not carry well On a cold day the speed of sound is reduced on the ground… causing the waves to bend towards the earth, carrying the sound longer distances
Pop Quiz How does sound reach you when are in a different room than the source? Refraction and Reflection!
Pop Quiz Waves/wav2.htm Waves/wav2.htm
INTERFERENCE Waves can be made to interfere with each other. When the crests of one wave overlap those of another wave, there is a constructive interference and increase in amplitude. When the crests of one wave overlap the overlap the troughs of another, there is a destructive interference and a decrease in amplitude.
INTERFERENCE AND SOUND Interference effects loudness Interference effects loudness If one is equally distant from two speakers simultaneously triggering identical sound waves, the sound is louder because the waves add. If one is equally distant from two speakers simultaneously triggering identical sound waves, the sound is louder because the waves add. Destructive interference is usually not a problem, and there is enough reflection to fill in canceled spots. Destructive interference is usually not a problem, and there is enough reflection to fill in canceled spots. “Dead spots” are present in poorly designed theaters and gyms. “Dead spots” are present in poorly designed theaters and gyms.
BEATS Periodic variation in the loudness of sound is called a beat. When two tones of slightly different frequency are sounded together, a fluctuation in the loudness of the combined sounds is heard. Beats can occur with any kind of wave.