Sugar Production In The Caribbean In the 1660s, a French book illustrated the various phases of sugar processing for curious European readers. Teams of oxen (A) turned the mill, the rollers of which crushed the canes (C), producing the sap (D), which was collected in a vat (E), then boiled down into molasses (K). African slaves, with minimal supervision by a few Europeans (foreground), managed all phases of the process.
Who Were Their First Choice As Laborers? 1.Native Americans 2.Indentured Servants 3.African Slaves Cost (ca.1680) Indentured Servant: 4 £ ($480.00 US in 2002) African Slave: 20 £ ($2,400.00 US in 2002)
Why Switch From Servants To Slaves..? 1.Slaves were slaves for life. 2.African slaves had more knowledge of rice cultivation than their owners! Many Africans had natural immunities to these diseases. 3.Health reasons-Malaria & Yellow Fever were deadly to Europeans.
Black Majority By 1710, blacks outnumbered whites in South Carolina.
Slave Trade Largest forced migration in human history; involved about 11-13 million Africans Middle Passage: The voyage from Africa to “New World.”
Uneven Negotiations (Between Whites & “Black Majority”) Pace of work: – Owners-want a fast pace – Slaves- want a slower pace Solution = Task System Slaves were given a “task” each day; once completed their work day was over. On a daily basis, slaves often did not work with whites.
Holding Onto African Heritage Children were given “African” names. Music & homes reflected African influence. Gullah: A language made up of English & African words.
White’s Fears Whites began to restrict behavior of slaves AND themselves. – Slaves could not work as messengers, barbers, loggers, etc. – Whites had to join slave patrols & taxes were increased—Fear of major REBELLION!
Slaves Reacted & Resisted In Many Ways Completely Submissive & Obedient Completely Resistant Subtle Resistance Up to 5% 5-10% 90-95%
Examples Of Resistance Breaking tools, faking illnesses, pretending not to know English or how to use tools, etc. Escape for short periods of time. Stono Rebellion: example of Extreme Resistance
Stono Rebellion (1739) 1.In a town near Stono River, 20 slaves, led by a slave named Jemmy, broke into a store. 2.They traveled South, stopping at plantations along the way, involving between 60-100 slaves. 3.Rebels were surrounded by whites & slaughtered. 4.Largest slave rebellion until 1830s; about 30 whites & over 100 slaves were killed.