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Two Sides of the Same Coin: Unequal and Uneven Development in Shrinking Cities Joanna Ganning, PhD, University of Utah

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Presentation on theme: "Two Sides of the Same Coin: Unequal and Uneven Development in Shrinking Cities Joanna Ganning, PhD, University of Utah"— Presentation transcript:

1 Two Sides of the Same Coin: Unequal and Uneven Development in Shrinking Cities Joanna Ganning, PhD, University of Utah J. Rosie Tighe, PhD, Cleveland State University Joanna Ganning, PhD, University of Utah J. Rosie Tighe, PhD, Cleveland State University

2 Shrinking Cities: Research Context 2  Economic Decline  Beginnings in Europe  How to bring to US Context?  Economic Decline  Beginnings in Europe  How to bring to US Context?

3 Land Stabilization 3  Literature presents a range of solutions  Land banking  Urban agriculture  Vacancy stabilization  Adaptive reuse  Literature presents a range of solutions  Land banking  Urban agriculture  Vacancy stabilization  Adaptive reuse

4 Permanent Shrinkage? 4  But many cities are shrinking decade upon decade.  What to do about “permanent” shrinkage?  Comprehensive Planning?  “Smart Decline”  Youngstown, OH is only city to plan  But implement?  But many cities are shrinking decade upon decade.  What to do about “permanent” shrinkage?  Comprehensive Planning?  “Smart Decline”  Youngstown, OH is only city to plan  But implement?

5 Framework & Contribution Inequitable Urban Decline Planning & Policy Shrinking Cities Hypothesis : Long-term decline is arrived at through a place-specific inability of planning and policy to intervene or remediate in the process of or effects of inequitable urban decline. Today’s Presentation : Digging through the historical and contemporary data that paints this picture for a case study city, St. Louis, MO. Future Work : Quantitative analysis on a sample of shrinking cities, testing the association between intra-city segregation in 1970 and the degree of population decline and change in SES inequality.

6 A brief history 6 Inequitable Urban Development & Decline

7 The Great Migration 7

8 Segregation 8

9 Industrial Decline and Blight 9

10 Discrimination 10

11 The Case of St. Louis (http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine ) Non-White Population, 1970 Population Change,

12 12 Planning & Policy History: St. Louis

13 Urban Renewal in St. Louis 13

14 Urban Renewal 14  3 interstate highways built through St. Louis  Hundreds of acres of land cleared  More than 6000 public housing units constructed  But more than units demolished  Those with means left; those without stayed  3 interstate highways built through St. Louis  Hundreds of acres of land cleared  More than 6000 public housing units constructed  But more than units demolished  Those with means left; those without stayed

15 The Legacy 15 A highly recommended resource:

16 Race by Census Trac, 1970t Team 4 Designated Zones, Triage in St. Louis

17 Reconstruction (Black) Maintain your property and yard and urge your neighbors to do so. Don’t make major investment in properties without checking with City to be sure it fits any plans for future rehabilitation or reconstruction….In absence of agreed-upon plan, discourage scattered new construction; uncertainty is unfair to investor and ultimate consumer. Investigate concept of land-banking to allow assembly of land for reconstruction without penalty to existing owners. (Saint Louis City Plan Commission 1973, 111) Reconstruction (Black) Maintain your property and yard and urge your neighbors to do so. Don’t make major investment in properties without checking with City to be sure it fits any plans for future rehabilitation or reconstruction….In absence of agreed-upon plan, discourage scattered new construction; uncertainty is unfair to investor and ultimate consumer. Investigate concept of land-banking to allow assembly of land for reconstruction without penalty to existing owners. (Saint Louis City Plan Commission 1973, 111) Improvement (White) The Development Program recommends a higher relative priority, than has heretofore existed, to action programs designed to stop the spread of deterioration and abandonment into those still attractive neighborhoods which are along the edge of seriously deteriorated areas and threatened by the insidious expansion of blight. It makes little sense for millions of public and private dollars to be expended on reconstruction of neighborhoods while at the same time allowing stable neighborhoods to fall into decline. (Saint Louis City Plan Commission 1973, p. 155) Improvement (White) The Development Program recommends a higher relative priority, than has heretofore existed, to action programs designed to stop the spread of deterioration and abandonment into those still attractive neighborhoods which are along the edge of seriously deteriorated areas and threatened by the insidious expansion of blight. It makes little sense for millions of public and private dollars to be expended on reconstruction of neighborhoods while at the same time allowing stable neighborhoods to fall into decline. (Saint Louis City Plan Commission 1973, p. 155)

18 18 As a result of the Team Four Plan, [the City] spent hundreds of millions of dollars in the Central West End to stabilize and to create a barrier between North and South St. Louis so the [few] black people in South St. Louis [at that time] could never gain political power. – State Representative Charles Quincy Troupe

19 Shrinking Cities While there are familiar threads of urban, racial inequality, the story of each city is unique.  Detroit: LeDuff (2013), Galster (2012), Clark (2014)  Richmond: Silver (1984) One has to wonder if there is a pattern. Does the city act as a tourniquet, and at multiple scales? Did cities as a whole decline because escape was possible for some? Did the 2 sided coin appear because of intra-city policy? Can we prove that long-term decline is more prevalent among cities where planning, policy, and/or development followed racial lines?


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