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01 May 2015Profitability Assessment1 1. Fundamentals Decision Making, Cost Theory, Break Even Analysis, Financial Statements, Financial Ratios, Time Value.

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Presentation on theme: "01 May 2015Profitability Assessment1 1. Fundamentals Decision Making, Cost Theory, Break Even Analysis, Financial Statements, Financial Ratios, Time Value."— Presentation transcript:

1 01 May 2015Profitability Assessment1 1. Fundamentals Decision Making, Cost Theory, Break Even Analysis, Financial Statements, Financial Ratios, Time Value of Money, Measures of profitability, Comparison of Alternatives

2 01 May 2015Profitability Assessment2 Overview 1.1 Cost Theory, Break Even 1.2 Financial Statements 1.3 Financial Ratios 1.4 The Concept of Interest 1.5 Profitability Measures 1.6 Comparison of investment alternatives

3 01 May 2015Profitability Assessment3 You learn by reading the text, but also by thinking!

4 Decision Making Rekognize/Analyze Decision Problem Define Goal (What) Data Collection Identify Alternatives (How) Select Criteria(s) Assess Risk Make Decision/Select best alternative 01 May 2015Profitability Assessment4

5 Capital Budgeting Decisions Analyze (see previous slide) Design (loops always necessary) Plan/Market/Finance/Negotiate Invest! Operate/Manufacture => Profit = Economic Sustainability 01 May 2015Profitability Assessment5

6 01 May 2015Profitability Assessment6 Cost Concepts Variable and Fixed Cost Net Profit Contribution Break Even Analysis Economics of Scale Average and Marginal Cost Sunk Costs and Opportunity Costs

7 01 May 2015Profitability Assessment7 Variable and Fixed Costs

8 Break Even Analysis Net Profit Contribution (to cover Fixed Cost) Price Elasticity Optimizing Production Annuity of Investment Cost Economics of Scale 01 May 2015Profitability Assessment8

9 01 May 2015Profitability Assessment9 Net Profit Contribution

10 01 May 2015Profitability Assessment10 Break Even Example

11 01 May 2015Profitability Assessment11 Break Even Analysis Graphics

12 01 May 2015Profitability Assessment12 Economics of Scale

13 01 May 2015Profitability Assessment13 Massive and mighty!

14 Financing Equity (Shareholders Funds) Loans: Regular Annuity Bullet WACC 01 May 2015Profitability Assessment14

15 Criteria / Measures Return on Investment (/Equity) Pay Back Period Financial Statements NPV, IRR, B/C.... Multi Criteria Decision Making Risk Factor Efficient Frontier (Pareto) 01 May 2015Profitability Assessment15

16 Financial Statements Statement of Earnings/Operating Statement Statement of Cash Flow/Source & Allocation of Funds Balance Sheet Financial Ratios (Assets, Debt, Liquidity, Profitability, Market Value) 01 May 2015Profitability Assessment16

17 Operating Statement Revenue/Income - Costs => EBITDA - Depreciation, Inventory Movement,... - Interest of Loans => Profit before Tax (EBT) - Income Tax - Dividend =>Net Profit/Loss 01 May 2015Profitability Assessment17

18 01 May 2015Profitability Assessment18

19 Source&Application of Funds 1 Profit before Tax (from Op Statem) + Depreciation => Funds from Operations + Loans & Equity Drawdown => Funds for Allocation 01 May 2015Profitability Assessment19

20 Source&Application of Funds 2 Allocation: Investment Repayment of Loans Paid Taxes Paid Dividend => Total Allocation of Funds 01 May 2015Profitability Assessment20

21 Source&Application of Funds 3 Changes in Net Current Assets: Funds – Allocation Analysis: Changes in Cash Account Changes in Debtors Changes in Inventory Changes in Creditors 01 May 2015Profitability Assessment21

22 Alternative Cash Flow EBITDA - Changes in Debtors + Creditors => Cash Flow before Tax (Project) - Interest & Repayment of Loans => Free (Net) Cash Flow (Equity) - Paid Dividend + Drawdowns – Investment => Cash Account Movement 01 May 2015Profitability Assessment22

23 Balance Sheet Assets: Current Assets: Cash Account Account Receivable Inventory Total Current A Fixed Assets => Total Assets Debt & Capital: Current Liabilities Long Term Debt Total Debt Equity Profit & Loss Bal Total Capital => Debt & Capital 01 May 2015Profitability Assessment23

24 Financial Ratios Debt Management (DR, DSC, LLCR) Liquidity (Current Ratios) Asset Management (Turnover Ratios) Market Value (P/E, Internal Value) Profitability (ROI, ROE) 01 May 2015Profitability Assessment24

25 01 May 2015Profitability Assessment25 The Concept of Interest Time Value of Money Present and Future Value Calculations Net Present Value (NPV) of Cash Flow Series Profitability Measures Comparison of alternatives

26 01 May 2015Profitability Assessment26 Time Value of Money Amount today is not equal to same amount after n years Many reasons: Opportunity to earn interest Inflation Risk Impatience?

27 01 May 2015Profitability Assessment27 Present and Future Values Present Value: P, Future Value: F Interest Rate per year: r Future Value after 1 year: F = P*(1+r) After 2 years: F 2 = P*(1+r)*(1+r) After n years: F n = P*(1+r)^n Present Value of F: P n = F n / (1+r)^n

28 01 May 2015Profitability Assessment28 Net Present Value of Cash Flow Series Invested Capital is Cash Flow out Operations generate Cash Flow in Annual cash in/out: An Net Present Value: NPV = Sum(A n /(1+r)^n) Should be > 0

29 01 May 2015Profitability Assessment29 NPV Example, Project A: Interest rate = 10% Invested Capital year 0 : -100 MUSD Operations years 1-5 => +30 “ NPV: Year 0: -100 year 1: +30/(1+0.1) = 27.3 year 2: +30/(1+0.1)^2 = 24.8 etc

30 01 May 2015Profitability Assessment30

31 01 May 2015Profitability Assessment31 Profitability Measures Net Present Value Pay Back Period, discounted Annual Worth / Annuity Benefit / Cost Ratio Internal Rate of Return (IRR) Relation of IRR to NPV

32 01 May 2015Profitability Assessment32 Profitability measures for the Example Pay Back Period undiscounted = 4 years Pay Back Period discounted = 5 years Annuity of -100 MUSD = 26.4 Annual Cash Flow in = 30.0 Annual Net Worth = 3.6 Benefits = NPV of 30 in 5 years = Cost = 100 Benefit/Cost Ratio = (must be > 1)

33 01 May 2015Profitability Assessment33 Internal Rate of Return Definition: The interest rate that results in a NPV = 0 Search for r = IRR such that: -100 = sum( 30/(1+r)^n) Interpretation: Earning 30 MUSD per year is equivalent of having 100 MUSD on an account with interest rate of r Here IRR = 15.2%

34 01 May 2015Profitability Assessment34 Relation of IRR to NPV

35 01 May 2015Profitability Assessment35 Comparison of investment alternatives Marginal Attractive Rate of Return (MARR) Problems with uneven lifetimes Incremental Method

36 01 May 2015Profitability Assessment36 To every problem there exists a solution!

37 01 May 2015Profitability Assessment37 Marginal Attractive Rate of Return (MARR) The lowest acceptable limit for IRR, i.e. IRR should be > MARR MARR is determined by the best available alternative use of money MARR can be IRR of best alternative investment possibility, or loan interest of the most expensive loan

38 01 May 2015Profitability Assessment38 Problems with uneven lifetimes Determine lifetime (planning horizon) for each investment alternative If uneven, use the shortest lifetime = T min in comparison Estimate salvage value for other alternatives at end of T min and add to the cash flow

39 01 May 2015Profitability Assessment39 Incremental Method for Comparison NPV measure: Select highest NPV Annual Worth: Same Pay Back Period: Not applicable IRR and B/C measures: Use incremental method, i.e. calculate the difference Determine if IRR diff > MARR Determine if B/C diff > 1

40 01 May 2015Profitability Assessment40 Example of Incremental Method

41 01 May 2015Profitability Assessment41 Difference B – A => IRR < MARR, so A is selected

42 01 May 2015Profitability Assessment42 We can´t always be choosy!


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