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Chapter 3: Global Context Dimensions

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1 Chapter 3: Global Context Dimensions
1: The Social Problem 2: Organizational 3: Ideological 4: Policy Dimensions

2 Global Social Problems
Poverty—infant mortality, malnutrition, and vulnerability (1 out of 3 of the world’s people lives in poverty) Children—50% of the world’s children affected by poverty or the AIDS’s epidemic (UNICEF report) Women—what is feminization of poverty? Arranged marriages, female genital mutilation, not able to own property, can’t access credit or inherit, acceptance of wife beatings, rape w/in marriage, etc.

3 Global Social Problems (Continued)
Extent of Conflict—inability of nations to live in peace (wars) Natural Disasters and ecological degradation have greater impact on poor people because they live on areas susceptible to problems and housing quality. Uneven Development of Nations—200 nation-states remain “least developed” and some are considered “failed states” because governance is not adequate to provide the basis for development.

4 Global Social Problems (Continued)
Uneven Impact of Most Global Problems– Countries are vulnerable and development is held back because of their geographical location is remote, landlocked, and island states. 90% of the global population growth are in the poor parts of the world Displacement and Forced Migration of People is due to the consequence of poverty, social conflicts, natural disasters, ecological degradation, and low levels of development.

5 Global Social Problems (Continued)
HIV/AIDS Epidemic and other health issues viewed as the greatest shock to development killing more than 22 Million including key groups like teachers in Africa (Zambia lost 1,300 in one year). TB=2M/yr; Malaria=1M/yr

6 Global Social Problems (Continued)
Global Social Work—why should social workers be aware? 1. Major social problems determine the global agendas like the millennium development goals from the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and where social workers will work (area of work and geography). 2. Social work in any developing country will be affected by these global concerns.

7 Global Social Problems (Continued)
Global Social Work—why should social workers be aware? 3. social workers have an obligation to contribute to the evolution of global policies and programs such as case data on child abductions. 4. understanding global problem will assist in better analysis for the solution/intervention. 5. network of agencies and conventions (NGOs, international reports, networks, international agencies etc.) working on global problems means a wide range of resources for social workers who work in the field—if social workers are aware of the global issues.

8 The Organizational Context
International Organizations are referred to as the international community. Main categories of organizations: 1.national governments and agencies (p.55) 2.intergovernmental agencies like European Union 3.UN system 4.Corporations nongovernment organizations, labor,& religious movements & cultural associations.

9 The Organizational Context (Continued)
National Govt’s and Agencies have power to pursue their national interests through international and foreign aid departments. They can also have poor governance and displace populations (refugees, illegal immigration). Q on pg. 57: Does the importance of sovereign state take precedence over protection of human rights, poverty, ecological issues?

10 The Organizational Context (Continued)
Intergovt’l Agencies established by groups of Nations like European/African Union develop common policies and currency to promote global security and well-being. United Nations System plays major role in the global economic and social development—like the world bank with loans to developing countries but they have to adopt western ideologies of free trade. “IMF/World Bank conditions, known as "structural adjustment programs“ (SAPs) (though the institutions are trying to escape that term's negative reputation by changing the name to "poverty reduction and growth programs") generally implement "free market" programs and policy. These programs include internal changes (notably privatization and deregulation) as well as external ones, especially the reduction of trade barriers. Countries which fail to enact these programs may be subject to severe fiscal discipline. Critics argue that financial threats to poor countries amount to blackmail, and that poor nations have no choice but to comply. In addition, the SAPs divert funds away from social and welfare services (such and health and education) as governments must instead prioritize loan repayments. This is seen to block achievement of the UN's Millennium Development Goals.”

11 The Organizational Context (Continued)
Chapter IX of the United Nations charter addresses international economic and social cooperation and the promotion of higher standards of living, full employment, solutions to economic, social, health & educational issues and universal respect for human rights related to race, gender, language and religion.

12 The Organizational Context (Continued)
Transnational (TNCs) and Multinational (MNCs) corporations are private for-profit; control 70% of world trade; dominate areas of production, distribution and sale of many goods from developing countries; 44 of the 100 largest corporations have US headquarters. Int’l Social workers tend to dismiss this sector as irrelevant to their work or injurious to the countries and the people. Need to influence TNCs agendas by increasing their awareness of social problems and cooperate with them.

13 The Organizational Context (Continued)
International Nongovernmental Agencies (INGOs) Red Cross founded in 1863 but many Christian organizations, medical associations (AMA), Jewish Welfare agencies. House of Mercy 1400s Govt’s and the UN pursue their goals through NGOs and the NGOs have become dependent on external formal funding sources and compete with each other for funding. Quality of the work from the NGOs varies due to funding, staff capabilities, poor program design and management, or inexperience in the field.

14 The Organizational Context (Continued)
Global Civil Society: “Globalization from below” is an example of grassroots movements that concern themselves with the “environment, human rights, women’s issues, sustainable development, peace, justice, literacy, and liberation from oppression. The advocates of "globalization from above" have told workers, communities and countries that the benefits of globalization would improve their lives if they accepted the free-market policies promulgated by the Internt’l Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank and the WTO. Differences between IMF and World Bank. The job of the International Monetary Fund is to protect international trade. The World Bank's is to promote economic development.

15 The Ideological Context
Definition of ideology— “systems of thought and belief by which individuals and groups explain how their social system operates and what principles it exemplifies” p. 65. Review Table 3.1 (p. 66) of liberalism, nationalism, and Marxism/Communism Schools of Thought about these ideologies: 1. competing ideologies of political economy divide humanity 2. focusing on a particular ideology is a danger to the global community so they add feminism or green ideologies 3. opposition to the current ideologies by such movements as anti-capitalism, anti-globalization, anti-free trade & anti-transnational corporations 4. type of global ideological thinking focuses on humanitarianism, human rights, religious ideologies, etc.

16 The Ideological Context (Continued)
Economic Neo-liberalism and Neoconservative Wing—the New Right—not for public interest per se but to defend institutions and interests of the wealthy p.69. key elements=deregulation; free trade without govt. subsidies or controls; limiting state power and placing responsibility on communities; individualism; negative view of welfare state

17 International Social Work and the Ideological Context
Worker’s Own Ideological Position—their baggage, cultural background, motivation? Local People’s Perceptions of Western Ideology—anger, suspicion, frustration, lack of trust—leading to not accepting workers from the western world. Worker’s reactions to relevant institutional ideologies—workers in conflict with the ideology of the agency. Should the worker leave the agency or accept the ideology?

18 Policy Dimensions International Law- social workers need to be aware of international law of the General Assembly (GA) of the UN (e.g. International Court of Justice). Global Economic Policy—Determined by global organizations and Institutions like the policies imposed by the International Financial Institutions. Some states drive the global economic policy and others are subjugated to the policies. Global Social Policy—includes globalization issues of both social and environmental

19 Global Policy and Int’l Social Work
Custody disputes across borders International Adoption Work Corrections Work Poverty Alleviation Unemployment Human Rights with Indigenous People Ecological or Environmental Work Q: What is your ideological baggage that might interfere with you achieving particular international social work goals? (from Table 3.1, p. 66).

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