Presentation on theme: "The Sinking of the RMS Titanic By Meagan Johnson."— Presentation transcript:
The Sinking of the RMS Titanic By Meagan Johnson
Location The Titanic hit an iceberg on that fateful night on April 14, 1912. It later sank at 2:20 the next morning April 15. It was her maiden voyage from Southampton, England to New York. The Titanic was the largest ship at her time and was said to be “unsinkable” The Titanic sunk 400 miles south off the shores of Grand Banks, Newfoundland in the North Atlantic Ocean. On September 1, 1985 her remains were discovered. They were 2.5 miles below the surface and 13 miles away from where they thought the Titanic had sunk.
Some Photos of the Wreck Pictures from the wreck of the Titanic
Processes of the Earth There are not any processes that cause icebergs to form or move. It is all the rotation of the Earth. Icebergs are formed when snow accumulates over time on a glacier and turns to ice. Eventually, a piece of freshwater ice breaks off the glacier from the pressure of its own weight. Earth’s rotation causes the seasons and the part farthest away from the Sun is the coldest. If the conditions are just right (enough moisture in the air and temperatures below 0 degrees Celsius) then snow can form. And typically the conditions are perfect because Greenland is near the poles and is the farthest away from the Sun in winter and glaciers are formed near water.
Surface Currents Another aspect of how the Titanic’s iceberg got to where it was is the surface currents. Surface currents are caused when there is uneven heating of the Earth and Earths rotation. The Labrador Current was probably the current that brought the Titanic’s iceberg since West Greenland is responsible for about 85% of the Northern Hemispheres icebergs.
The Sun and Surface Currents Surface currents are caused by the uneven heating of Earth’s surface and Earth’s rotation. The Sun is responsible for heating the Earth. It causes winds and moves the sea surface when the wind blows over it. Also, Earth’s rotation causes the ocean to move to the right in the Northern Hemisphere.
Density The sun effects the density of water by either changing it’s temperature or changing how much salt is in it. If the water gets cooler or becomes saltier then it becomes denser. The closer the Earth is to the Sun the more it can effect it.
Risks From the Sinkage There were 2,208 people on board the Titanic – Crew and passengers 1,496 people died either from the initial crash or the hypothermia from the 12-15 degrees F water Out of the 712 who survived many suffered from severe hypothermia from the freezing waters and or frostbite on their hands and nose from the cold night air People Dead 1,496 Survivors712 Total People on Boat 2,208
Predictability Although there have been very few ships sunk by icebergs since the Titanic, it is very common to see ice fields in the North Atlantic and Antarctic Oceans. Some icebergs can be up to 250 feet high and 660 feet wide. Icebergs make it very difficult to sail in these waters because about only 1/7 of the iceberg is above the surface.
MS Hans Hedtoft The most recent iceberg sinking in the North Atlantic Ocean was the MS Hans Hedtoft. The ship was a Danish Liner that was sailing back to Denmark from Greenland on her maiden voyage. She hit an iceberg on January 30, 1959, 35 miles off of Greenland. All 40 crew members and 55 passengers died. The ships remains have never been found. The tip of Greenland where MS Hans Hedtoft sank
MS Explorer The MS Explorer is the most recent ship that has sunk by an iceberg in the world The cruise liner hit an iceberg off the South Shetland Islands in the Antarctic Ocean on November 23, 2007. All 154 people on board were saved by a nearby Norwegian ship, the Nordnorge.
Forecasting There is no way to forecast hitting an iceberg. It is all a matter of being at the right place at the wrong time. Also, an unusually warm season causing more icebergs to come adrift. But now that the Ice Patrol is in effect and ships can warn other ships about possible icebergs the chances of hitting an iceberg can be reduced.
One of Titanic’s Mysteries Although, some people say Morgan Robertson predicted the Titanic’s sinking in his book Futility. The book was published in 1898, 14 years before the Titanic sank. As you can see there are many similarities between the two ships. The question is, How? Robertson's Book Actual Titanic NameTitanTitanic Location North Atlantic Route New York to England England to New York Causes Iceberg Collision, Excessive Speed and too few lifeboats Time Night in April April 14 11:40 pm Called Largest ship afloat
More Similarities Robertson’s Book Actual Titanic CountryBritainBritain Length 800 feet 882 feet Capacity About 3,000 Top Speed 24 knots Number of Propellers 33 Actual Number of Passengers 2,0002,223 Number of Lifeboats 2420 Area of Damage Starboard Side Forward
Lifeboats Many new precautionary systems were installed after the Titanic sank. One of them being the number of lifeboats ships were required to carry. Most people say the Titanic's passengers could have been saved if there were enough lifeboats for everyone, but in fact the Titanic carried 20 life boats, 4 more than Board of Trades required British vessels to carry, 16. Today however ships are required to carry enough lifeboats for everyone on board. Also ships are required to give lifeboat drills in case of emergency and lifeboat inspections.
Radio After the Titanic sank the Radio Act of 1912 was passed. It stated that all passenger ships needed to have 24 hour radio so other ships could communicate at all hours of the day. Also it made ships communicate with nearby vessels and onshore radio stations so people knew of the ships location. Titanic’s Radio Room. Said to be one of the only pictures of it.
International Ice Patrol After the tragedy the Titanic suffered from that iceberg, the International Ice Patrol was established. The Patrol monitors and reports locations of icebergs all over the North Atlantic Ocean so Trans Atlantic ships are aware of icebergs in that area. Also, after 1912 the flare was to be distinguished as a distress signal for ships.
Redesigning Ships After the Titanic sank from having its compartments filled with water, ships design changed. Ships with double bottoms hulls were extended higher up to make it a double hull. Also, the height of the bulkheads on ships was raised so to make all compartments watertight.
Reducing Risks People can reduce actually sinking a ship by iceberg by reducing the speed of a ship in an iceberg full area, the International Ice Patrol, and being aware of their surroundings. People can reduce the risks of hypothermia and death by knowing where personal flotation devices are and putting them on when your told. Once in the water keep as much of your body out of the water, stay still unless something is nearby, huddle with others, keep clothing on, and have a will to live.