2 Time Value of Money The most important concept in finance Used in nearly every financial decision Business decisions Personal finance decisions
3 Cash Flow Time Lines CF 0 CF 1 CF 3 CF k% Time 0 is today Time 1 is the end of Period 1 or the beginning of Period 2. Graphical representations used to show timing of cash flows
Year k% Time line for a $100 lump sum due at the end of Year 2
5 Time line for an ordinary annuity of $100 for 3 years k%
6 Time line for uneven CFs - $50 at t = 0 and $100, $75, and $50 at the end of Years 1 through k% -50
7 The amount to which a cash flow or series of cash flows will grow over a period of time when compounded at a given interest rate. Future Value
8 FV n = FV 1 = PV + INT = PV + (PV x k) = PV (1 + k) = $100( ) = $100(1.05) = $105 How much would you have at the end of one year if you deposited $100 in a bank account that pays 5 percent interest each year? Future Value
9 FV = ? % 100 Finding FV is Compounding. What’s the FV of an initial $100 after 3 years if k = 10%?
10 After 1 year: FV 1 =PV + Interest 1 = PV + PV (k) =PV(1 + k) =$100 (1.10) =$ After 2 years: FV 2 =PV(1 + k) 2 =$100 (1.10) 2 =$ After 3 years: FV 3 =PV(1 + k) 3 =100 (1.10) 3 =$ In general, FV n = PV (1 + k) n Future Value
11 Three Ways to Solve Time Value of Money Problems Use Equations Use Financial Calculator Use Electronic Spreadsheet
12 Solve this equation by plugging in the appropriate values: Numerical (Equation) Solution PV = $100, k = 10%, and n =3
13 Spreadsheet Solution Set up ProblemClick on Function Wizard and choose Financial/FV
14 Spreadsheet Solution Reference cells: Rate = interest rate, k Nper = number of periods interest is earned Pmt = periodic payment PV = present value of the amount
15 Present Value Present value is the value today of a future cash flow or series of cash flows. Discounting is the process of finding the present value of a future cash flow or series of future cash flows; it is the reverse of compounding.
% PV = ? What is the PV of $100 due in 3 years if k = 10%?
17 Solve FV n = PV (1 + k ) n for PV: What is the PV of $100 due in 3 years if k = 10%? This is the numerical solution to solve for PV.
18 Spreadsheet Solution
19 Solve for n: FV n = 1(1 + k) n 2 = 1(1.20) n If sales grow at 20% per year,how long before sales double? The numerical solution is somewhat difficult.
20 Spreadsheet Solution
21 Future Value of an Annuity Annuity: A series of payments of equal amounts at fixed intervals for a specified number of periods. Ordinary (deferred) Annuity: An annuity whose payments occur at the end of each period. Annuity Due: An annuity whose payments occur at the beginning of each period.
22 PMT 0123 k% PMT 0123 k% PMT Ordinary Annuity Versus Annuity Due Ordinary Annuity Annuity Due
% FV= 331 What’s the FV of a 3-year Ordinary Annuity of $100 at 10%?
24 Numerical Solution:
25 Spreadsheet Solution
26 Present Value of an Annuity PVA n = the present value of an annuity with n payments. Each payment is discounted, and the sum of the discounted payments is the present value of the annuity.
= PV % What is the PV of this Ordinary Annuity?
28 Numerical Solution
29 Spreadsheet Solution
% 100 Find the FV and PV if the Annuity were an Annuity Due.
31 Numerical Solution
32 Spreadsheet Solution
k = ? You pay $ for an investment that promises to pay you $250 per year for the next four years, with payments made at the end of each year. What interest rate will you earn on this investment? Solving for Interest Rates with Annuities
34 Use trial-and-error by substituting different values of k into the following equation until the right side equals $ Numerical Solution
35 Spreadsheet Solution
36 Spreadsheet Solution
37 Uneven Cash Flow Streams A series of cash flows in which the amount varies from one period to the next: Payment (PMT) designates constant cash flows—that is, an annuity stream. Cash flow (CF) designates cash flows in general, both constant cash flows and uneven cash flows.
% = PV What is the PV of this Uneven Cash Flow Stream?
39 Numerical Solution
40 Spreadsheet Solution
41 Semiannual and Other Compounding Periods Annual compounding is the process of determining the future value of a cash flow or series of cash flows when interest is added once a year. Semiannual compounding is the process of determining the future value of a cash flow or series of cash flows when interest is added twice a year.
43 How do we find EAR for a simple rate of 10%, compounded semi-annually?
44 FV of $100 after 3 years if interest is 10% compounded semi-annual? Quarterly?
45 Spreadsheet Solution
46 Amortized Loans Amortized Loan: A loan that is repaid in equal payments over its life. Amortization tables are widely used for home mortgages, auto loans, business loans, retirement plans, and so forth to determine how much of each payment represents principal repayment and how much represents interest. They are very important, especially to homeowners! Financial calculators (and spreadsheets) are great for setting up amortization tables.
47 Construct an amortization schedule for a $1,000, 10 percent loan that requires three equal annual payments. PMT % -1,000
48 Spreadsheet Solution
49 Interest declines, which has tax implications. Loan Amortization Table 10 Percent Interest Rate * Rounding difference