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Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 16: Sensory, Motor, and Integrative Systems.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 16: Sensory, Motor, and Integrative Systems."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chapter 16: Sensory, Motor, and Integrative Systems

2 Sensation Conscious and subconscious awareness of changes in the external or internal environment. Components of sensation: Stimulation of the sensory receptor → transduction of the stimulus (energy-to-graded potential) → generation of nerve impulses → integration of sensory input. Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

3 Classification of Sensory Receptors General senses: somatic and visceral. Somatic- tactile, thermal, pain and proprioceptive sensations. Visceral- provide information about conditions within internal organs. Special senses- smell, taste, vision, hearing and equilibrium or balance.

4 Types of Sensory Receptors Free nerve endings: pain and thermoreceptors. Encapsulated nerve endings: pacinian corpuscles - pressure. Separate cells: hair cells, photoreceptors and gustatory receptor cells. Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

5 Generator Potential and Receptor Potential Generator potential is produced by free nerve endings, encapsulated nerve endings, and olfactory receptors. When it reaches a threshold, it triggers one or more nerve impulses in the axon of a first-order sensory neuron. Receptor potential triggers the release of neurotransmitter → postsynaptic potential → action potential (gustatory). Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

6 Sensory Receptors and their Relation-ship to First-Order Sensory Neurons Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

7 Classification of Sensory Receptors Based on the Location Exteroceptors – external surface (hearing, vision, smell, taste, touch, pressure, vibration, temp, and pain) Interoceptors – visceroceptors Proprioceptors – muscles, tendons, joints, and inner ear (body position, muscle length and tension, position and movement of joints) Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

8 Classification of Sensory Receptors based on the type of Stimulus Mechanoreceptors – mechanical stimuli (touch, pressure, vibration, proprioception, hearing and Eq, and stretching of blood vessels and internal organs Thermoreceptors – Temp. Nociceptors – Pain (via physical or chemical damage) Photoreceptors - light Chemoreceptors –taste, smell, body fluids Osmoreceptors – osmotic pressure of body fluids

9 Adaptation of Sensory Receptors Rapidly adapting receptors: receptors that detect pressure, touch and smell. Slowly adapting receptors: receptors that detect pain, body position, and chemical composition of the blood. Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

10 Somatic Sensations Sensory receptors in the skin (cutaneous sensations), muscles, tendons and joints and in the inner ear. Uneven distribution of receptors. (tongue, lips, fingertips) Four modalities: tactile, thermal, pain, and proprioceptive. Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

11 Sensory Receptors in the Skin

12 Tactile Sensations Include touch, pressure, vibration, itch and tickle. Tactile receptors in the skin are Meissner corpuscles, hair root plexuses, Merkel discs, Ruffini corpuscles, pacinian corpuscles, and free nerve endings. Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

13 Meissner Corpuscles or Corpuscles of Touch Egg-shaped mass of dendrites enclosed by a capsule of connective tissue. Rapidly adapting receptors. Found in the dermal papillae of hairless skin such as in the fingertips, hands, eyelids, tip of the tongue, lips, nipples, soles, clitoris, and tip of the penis. Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

14 Hair Root Plexuses Rapidly adapting touch receptors found in the hairy skin. Free nerve endings wrapped around hair follicles. Detect movements on the skin surface that disturb hairs. Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

15 Merkel Discs or Tactile Discs Also known as type I cutaneous mechanoreceptors. Slowly adapting touch receptors. Saucer-shaped, flattened free nerve endings. Found in the fingertips, hands, lips, and external genitalia. Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

16 Ruffini Corpuscles Also called as type II cutaneous mechanoreceptors. Elongated, encapsulated receptors. Located deep in the dermis and in ligaments and tendons. Found in the hands, and soles. Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

17 Pacinian or Lamellated Corpuscles Large oval structure composed of a multilayered connective tissue capsule that encloses a dendrite. Fast adapting receptors. Found around joints, tendons, and muscles; in the periosteum, mammary glands, external genitalia, pancreas and urinary bladder. Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

18 Thermal Sensations Thermoreceptors are free nerve endings. Two distinct thermal sensations: cold receptors- warm receptors- Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

19 Pain Sensations Protective. Sensory receptors are nociceptors. Free nerve endings. Two types of pain: fast and slow. Fast pain: acute, sharp or pricking pain. Slow pain: chronic, burning, aching or throbbing pain. Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

20 Referred Pain Pain is felt in or just deep to the skin that overlies the stimulated organ or in a surface area far from the stimulated organ. Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

21 Heart Lung and diaphragm Heart Pancreas Stomach Ovary Urinary bladder Liver and gallbladder Stomach Liver and gallbladder Kidney Liver and gallbladder Gallbladder Small intestine Ovary Kidney Ureter (b) Posterior view(a) Anterior view

22 Proprioceptive Sensations Receptors are called proprioceptors. Slow adaptation. Weight discrimination. Three types: muscle spindles, tendon organs and joint kinesthetic receptors. Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

23 Muscle Spindles Interspersed among most skeletal muscle fibers and aligned parallel to them. Measure muscle stretching and lenght. Consists of intrafusal muscle fibers- specialized muscle fibers with sensory nerve endings and motor neurons called gamma motor neurons. Extrafusal muscle fibers- surrounding muscle fibers supplied by alpha motor neurons. Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

24 A Muscle Spindle and a Tendon Organ

25 Tendon Organs Located at the junction of a tendon and a muscle. Protect tendons and their associated muscles from damage due to excessive tension. Consists of a thin capsule of connective tissue that encloses a few tendon fascicles. Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

26 Joint Kinesthetic Receptors Found within or around the articular capsules of synovial joints. Free nerve endings and Ruffini corpuscles in the capsules of joints respond to pressure. Pacinian corpuscles respond to acceleration and deceleration of joints during movement. Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

27 Stop Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

28 Somatic Sensory Pathways First-order neuron (somatic receptor to the brain stem/spinal cord) → second order neuron(brain stem/spinal cord too the thalamus; decussate) → third-order neuron(thalamus to the primary somatosensory area of the cortex). Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

29 Major Somatic Sensory Pathways The posterior column-medial lemniscus pathway. The anterolateral (spinothalamic) pathway. The trigeminothalamic pathway. The anterior and posterior spinocerebellar pathway. Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

30 The Posterior Column-Medial Lemniscus Pathway Conveys nerve impulses for touch, pressure, vibration and conscious proprioception from the limbs, trunk, neck, and posterior head to the cerebral cortex. Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

31 The Anterolateral (spinothalamic) pathway Conveys nerve impulses for pain, cold, warmth, itch, and tickle from the limbs, trunk, neck, and posterior head to the cerebral cortex. Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

32 Trigeminothalamic Pathway Conveys nerve impulses for most somatic sensations from the face, nasal cavity, oral cavity and teeth to the cerebral cortex. Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

33 Mapping of the Primary Somatosensory Area Mapping of the postcentral gyrus. Size of the cortical region representing a body part depends on the sensory impulses received from that part. Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

34 Somatic Motor Pathways Upper motor neurons → lower motor neurons → skeletal muscles. Neural circuits involving basal ganglia and cerebellum regulate activity of the upper motor neurons. Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

35 Organization of the Upper Motor Neuron Pathways Direct motor pathway- originates in the cerebral cortex. Corticospinal pathway: to the limbs and trunk. Corticobulbar pathway: to the head. Indirect motor pathway- originates in the brain stem. Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

36 Mapping of the Motor Areas Located in the precentral gyrus of the frontal lobe. More cortical area is devoted to those muscles involved in skilled, complex or delicate movements. Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

37 The Corticospinal Pathways Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

38 The Corticobulbar Pathway Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

39 Indirect or Extrapyramidal Pathways Originate in the brain stem. Include:  Rubrospinal tract  Tectospinal tract  Vestibulospinal tract  Reticulospinal tract Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

40 Modulation of Movement from the Cerebellum The cerebellum coordinates and smoothes contractions of skeletal muscles during skilled movements and helps maintain posture and balance. Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

41 Sagittal plane Motor areas of cerebral cortex Thalamus Corrective feedback Motor centers in brainstem Pons Pontine nuclei Direct pathways Indirect pathways Signals to lower motor neurons Sagittal section through brain and spinal cord Sensory signals from proprioceptors in muscles and joints, vestibular apparatus, and eyes Cortex of cerebellum 1 Sagittal plane Motor areas of cerebral cortex Corrective feedback Pons Direct pathways Indirect pathways Signals to lower motor neurons Sagittal section through brain and spinal cord Sensory signals from proprioceptors in muscles and joints, vestibular apparatus, and eyes Cortex of cerebellum 1 2 Thalamus Motor centers in brainstem Pontine nuclei Sagittal plane Motor areas of cerebral cortex Corrective feedback Pons Direct pathways Indirect pathways Signals to lower motor neurons Sagittal section through brain and spinal cord Sensory signals from proprioceptors in muscles and joints, vestibular apparatus, and eyes Cortex of cerebellum Thalamus Motor centers in brainstem Pontine nuclei Sagittal plane Motor areas of cerebral cortex Corrective feedback Pons Direct pathways Indirect pathways Signals to lower motor neurons Sagittal section through brain and spinal cord Sensory signals from proprioceptors in muscles and joints, vestibular apparatus, and eyes Cortex of cerebellum Thalamus Motor centers in brainstem Pontine nuclei

42 Integrative Functions of the Cerebrum Wakefulness and sleep- Learning and memory- Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

43 The role of Reticular Activating System (RAS) in Awakening Consists of neurons whose axons project from the reticular formation through the thalamus to the cerebral cortex. Increased activity of the RAS causes awakening from sleep (arousal). Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

44 Sleep A state of altered consciousness. Two components: non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. NREM sleep consists of four stages:  Stage min transitional  Stage 2- light sleep  Stage 3- temp and blood pressure decrease, occurs about 20 minutes after sleep  Stage 4- deepest – sleep walking lowest brain metabolism Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

45 Learning and Memory Learning is the ability to acquire new information or skills through instruction or experience. Memory is the process by which information acquired through learning is stored and retrieved. Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

46 Memory Types Immediate memory- recall for a few seconds. Short-term memory- temporary ability to recall. Long-term memory- more permanent. Memory consolidation – frequent retrieval of a piece of information. Copyright 2009, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


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