2 Industrial DiffusionHow do industrial regionalization, uneven development, and core-periphery patterns come to exist?
3 The Industrial Revolution Pre-Industrialization: How were goods produced BEFORE IR?People had made goods for thousands of years before IRthings made slowly (low productivity), all by handworkmen handled all facets of production > different quality goodsguilds created production standards, but prices were high
4 The Industrial Revolution (Cont) Pre-Industrialization: what did the Revolution change?Spatial distributionwork done at home (cottage industry)goods sold locallyworkers paid by the “piece”industry was dispersed in all locales
5 The Industrial Revolution (Cont) What changed as a result of the Industrial Revolution?Once the IR occurredthings made quickly (high productivity), mostly by machineworkmen handled one discrete task > same quality of mass-produced itemsFactories made similar goods with same production standards; prices came down
6 The Industrial Revolution (Cont) What changed as a result of the Industrial Revolution?Spatial DistributionWork done at factoriesGoods sold near and farWorkers paid by the hourIndustry was clustered in a few places
7 The Industrial Revolution (Cont) Why did it begin in the Great Britain?capitalist systemguilds had created a middle class of workmenpeople free to form businesseseducationpatent system encouraged developmentlabor:Jethro Tull’s seed drill (1701) and other developments > improved productivity in farming > people can leave farms and work elsewhere
8 The Industrial Revolution (cont) Why did it begin in the Great Britain? (CONT)raw materials (iron ore, coal)rivers, canals, harbors (ease in trade)small, compact size (iron and coal near rivers and harbors)existing banking system (borrow $ to buy machinery)stable political systemcolonies (guaranteed markets, additional raw materials)
9 The Industrial Revolution (cont) Key developmentsJames Watt patents the steam engine (1769)wood replaces running water as source of energychanges location of machinerywas located by running water (streams, rivers)now can be located wherever wood exists (more flexibility)
10 The Industrial Revolution (cont) Key developments (cont)steam engine adapts to iron industry (iron deposits in Midlands, So. Scotland, So. Wales)steam engine provides steady supply of hot air for blast furnaceease in smelting iron and shaping it into “pig iron” [common size]
11 The Industrial Revolution (cont) Key developments (cont)steam engine adapts to textile industrycotton fiber spun into thread (inefficient by hand; efficient by machine)thread woven into cloth with power looms in large factories
12 The Industrial Revolution (cont) other industries arise from iron industrywood becomes scarce > coal > coke (factories move to coal fields)> integrated factories where iron is smelted and processed into steelneed to transport coal and iron > railroad
13 The Industrial Revolution (cont) Effectseconomic: more goods at lower pricessocial: available labor leaves farms and clusters in citiesurban blight, pollutioncanned food (encourages new industry)political: surplus labor > mistreated workers > liberalism and communism
14 The Industrial Revolution (cont) Effectstechnological: > railroad, steamshipagricultural: > 2d Agricultural Revolutionincreased productivityuse of machinery > larger farms > enclosuresdemographic: caused move from Stage 1 to Stage 2 of DTM
15 The Industrial Revolution (cont) Early Diffusioneastward to Belgium, France, and Germany (early 1800s; delay due to Napoleonic Wars)further diffusion to Italy, Netherlands, Russia and Sweden by late 1800sU.S. not affected by political instability in Europe: diffusion by early 1800s8,000 spindles of textiles in 1808 > 80,000 spindles by 1811by Civil War, U.S. was world’s 2d largest industrial power
18 Industrial RegionsHow can the theme of culture regions be applied to industrial activity?
19 Types of industrial activity Primary = extracting resources. Ex.?Secondary = processing stage. Ex?Tertiary = servicesTransportation/CommunicationProducer ServicesConsumer ServicesEach type of industrial activity displays unique spatial patterns, or “industrial regions.”
20 Primary Industry Extract resources Renewable can be used without being permanently depleted. Risk of overexploitationNonrenewable are depleted when used.
21 Secondary Industry A.K.A. “manufacturing” Traditionally clustered together in several regionsEach region is specialized because each activity has certain requirements; locations are chosen based on how advantageous they are. Ex.?Regional specialization core-periphery dynamic (UNEVEN DEVELOPMENT)
22 Secondary Industry (cont) Global trends since 1950’sSecondary industry declining in core countriesFactories closing down; people out of workCore countries retain industries that require highly skilled or artisanal work. Ex. technopolesService industry boomThis is called deindustrializationCore countries entering post-industrial phasePeriphery countries becoming industrializedTransnational corporations manage a complex business system with multiple specialized locations. Effect of globalization.
24 Service Industries U.S., Canada, Europe and Japan = postindustrial Transportation/communication servicesServices that facilitate the distribution of goods, services and information to meet the requirements of modern industry.Regional differences in the relative importance of various modes of transportation. EX Russia = rails; US=highwayEx.?
25 Service Industries (cont) Producer servicesRequired by those who produce goods; necessary for business growth and developmentGenerally located in the coreRequire more educated labor forceEx.?Leads to more uneven development; industrialization of LDCs makes them more dependent upon industrial powers.Information technology – growing fieldRequires skilled, creative labor force, and little landHigh-tech corridors developing. Ex. “Silicon Valley”
26 Service Industries (cont) Consumer ServicesServices aimed at keeping people healthy, educated, safe and happy.Ex.?