Industrial Diffusion How do industrial regionalization, uneven development, and core-periphery patterns come to exist?
The Industrial Revolution A.Pre-Industrialization: How were goods produced BEFORE IR? 1.People had made goods for thousands of years before IR a.things made slowly (low productivity), all by hand b.workmen handled all facets of production > different quality goods c.guilds created production standards, but prices were high
The Industrial Revolution (Cont) A.Pre-Industrialization: what did the Revolution change? 2.Spatial distribution a.work done at home (cottage industry) goods sold locally workers paid by the “piece” b.industry was dispersed in all locales
The Industrial Revolution (Cont) B.What changed as a result of the Industrial Revolution? 1.Once the IR occurred a.things made quickly (high productivity), mostly by machine b.workmen handled one discrete task > same quality of mass- produced items c.Factories made similar goods with same production standards; prices came down
The Industrial Revolution (Cont) B.What changed as a result of the Industrial Revolution? 2.Spatial Distribution a.Work done at factories –Goods sold near and far –Workers paid by the hour b.Industry was clustered in a few places
The Industrial Revolution (Cont) C.Why did it begin in the Great Britain? 1.capitalist system a.guilds had created a middle class of workmen b.people free to form businesses c.education d.patent system encouraged development 2.labor: a.Jethro Tull’s seed drill (1701) and other developments > improved productivity in farming > people can leave farms and work elsewhere
The Industrial Revolution (cont) C.Why did it begin in the Great Britain? (CONT) 3.raw materials (iron ore, coal) 4.rivers, canals, harbors (ease in trade) 5.small, compact size (iron and coal near rivers and harbors) 6.existing banking system (borrow $ to buy machinery) 7.stable political system 8.colonies (guaranteed markets, additional raw materials)
The Industrial Revolution (cont) D.Key developments 1.James Watt patents the steam engine (1769) a.wood replaces running water as source of energy b.changes location of machinery –was located by running water (streams, rivers) –now can be located wherever wood exists (more flexibility)
The Industrial Revolution (cont) D.Key developments (cont) 2.steam engine adapts to iron industry (iron deposits in Midlands, So. Scotland, So. Wales) a.steam engine provides steady supply of hot air for blast furnace b.ease in smelting iron and shaping it into “pig iron” [common size]
The Industrial Revolution (cont) D.Key developments (cont) 3.steam engine adapts to textile industry a.cotton fiber spun into thread (inefficient by hand; efficient by machine) b.thread woven into cloth with power looms in large factories
The Industrial Revolution (cont) c.other industries arise from iron industry wood becomes scarce > coal > coke (factories move to coal fields) > integrated factories where iron is smelted and processed into steel need to transport coal and iron > railroad
The Industrial Revolution (cont) E.Effects 1.economic: more goods at lower prices 2.social: available labor leaves farms and clusters in cities a.urban blight, pollution b.canned food (encourages new industry) 3.political: surplus labor > mistreated workers > liberalism and communism
The Industrial Revolution (cont) E.Effects 4.technological: > railroad, steamship 5.agricultural: > 2d Agricultural Revolution a.increased productivity b.use of machinery > larger farms > enclosures 6.demographic: caused move from Stage 1 to Stage 2 of DTM
The Industrial Revolution (cont) F.Early Diffusion 1.eastward to Belgium, France, and Germany (early 1800s; delay due to Napoleonic Wars) 2.further diffusion to Italy, Netherlands, Russia and Sweden by late 1800s 3.U.S. not affected by political instability in Europe: diffusion by early 1800s a.8,000 spindles of textiles in 1808 > 80,000 spindles by 1811 b.by Civil War, U.S. was world’s 2d largest industrial power
Industrial Regions How can the theme of culture regions be applied to industrial activity?
Types of industrial activity A.Primary = extracting resources. Ex.? B.Secondary = processing stage. Ex? C.Tertiary = services 1.Transportation/Communication 2.Producer Services 3.Consumer Services D.Each type of industrial activity displays unique spatial patterns, or “industrial regions.”
Primary Industry A.Extract resources 1.Renewable can be used without being permanently depleted. Risk of overexploitation 2.Nonrenewable are depleted when used.
Secondary Industry A.A.K.A. “manufacturing” 1.Traditionally clustered together in several regions 2.Each region is specialized because each activity has certain requirements; locations are chosen based on how advantageous they are. Ex.? 3.Regional specialization core-periphery dynamic (UNEVEN DEVELOPMENT)
Secondary Industry (cont) A.Global trends since 1950’s 1.Secondary industry declining in core countries a.Factories closing down; people out of work b.Core countries retain industries that require highly skilled or artisanal work. Ex. technopoles c.Service industry boom d.This is called deindustrialization e.Core countries entering post-industrial phase 2.Periphery countries becoming industrialized 3.Transnational corporations manage a complex business system with multiple specialized locations. Effect of globalization.
Service Industries A.U.S., Canada, Europe and Japan = postindustrial B.Transportation/communication services 1.Services that facilitate the distribution of goods, services and information to meet the requirements of modern industry. 2.Regional differences in the relative importance of various modes of transportation. EX Russia = rails; US=highway 3.Ex.?
Service Industries (cont) A.Producer services 1.Required by those who produce goods; necessary for business growth and development a.Generally located in the core b.Require more educated labor force 2.Ex.? 3.Leads to more uneven development; industrialization of LDCs makes them more dependent upon industrial powers. 4.Information technology – growing field a.Requires skilled, creative labor force, and little land –High-tech corridors developing. Ex. “Silicon Valley”
Service Industries (cont) A.Consumer Services 1.Services aimed at keeping people healthy, educated, safe and happy. 2.Ex.?