Air Circulation Patterns: Rotation of Earth on Axis Earth’s surface turns faster under equator than at poles This deflects the movements of winds moving N or S to the W at the equator and the E closer to the poles.
Natural Capital Degradation Deserts Large desert cities Soil destruction by off- road vehicles and urban development Soil salinization from irrigation Depletion of underground water supplies Land disturbance and pollution from mineral extraction Storage of toxic and radioactive wastes Large arrays of solar cells and solar collectors used to produce electricity
Grassland Biomes: Chaparral Characteristics: Found in many coastal regions that border on deserts (i.e. California) Temperate shrubland Consists of dense growths of low-growing evergreen shrubs and small trees Very susceptible to fires, but is also maintained by them
Natural Capital Degradation Grasslands Conversion of savanna and temperate grasslands to cropland Release of CO 2 to atmosphere from burning and conversion of grassland to cropland Overgrazing of tropical and temperate grasslands by livestock Damage to fragile arctic tundra by oil production, air and water pollution, and off-road vehicles
Forest Biomes Community of plants and animals typically distributed in various layers and various niches: - -Understory of herbaceous plants and shrubs - -Subcanopy of tree saplings - -Canopy of full grown trees. - -Emergent layer gets most direct sunlight
Natural Capital Degradation Forests Clearing and degradation of tropical forests for agriculture, livestock grazing, and timber harvesting Clearing of temperate deciduous forests in Europe, Asia, and North America for timber, agriculture, and urban development Clearing of evergreen coniferous forests in North America, Finland, Sweden, Canada, Siberia, and Russia Conversion of diverse forests to less biodiverse tree plantations Damage to soils from off-road vehicles
Mountain Ice and snow Altitude Tundra (herbs, lichens, mosses) Coniferous Forest Tropical Forest Deciduous Forest Tropical Forest Deciduous Forest Coniferous Forest Tundra (herbs, lichens, mosses) Polar ice and snow Latitude 6. Mountain Biomes Similar changes in vegetation type occur when increasing latitude or increasing altitude Each 100 m (300 ft) gain in elevation is approximately equal to a 100 km (62 mi) change in latitude
Natural Capital Degradation Mountains Landless poor migrating uphill to survive Hydroelectric dams and reservoirs Increasing tourism (such as hiking and skiing) Air pollution from industrial and urban centers Increased ultraviolet radi- ation from ozone depletion Timber extraction Mineral resource extraction Soil damage from off-road vehicles
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