Presentation on theme: "Greenhouses Designed and Researched by: 1999-00 Greenhouse and Turf Management Class John Koster, Paul Marsh, Jamie Wade, Nick Maneri Dan Dorfee, Jared."— Presentation transcript:
Greenhouses Designed and Researched by: Greenhouse and Turf Management Class John Koster, Paul Marsh, Jamie Wade, Nick Maneri Dan Dorfee, Jared Neid, Rob Stanley Oakcrest High School, Mays Landing NJ
Greenhouse Greenhouse location is very important, when placing your green house you must remember you will have to deliver your plant crops at all times of the year. –Keep your greenhouse next to major roads to be sure that they are open through all times of the year to get goods to you’re retailers
A greenhouse is an area designed to grow plants. It is a controlled environment which allow optimum growth. When several of these buildings are joined together they are often referred to as a greenhouse range. A greenhouse at home is usually attached to the house or the garage. What is a greenhouse?
Location There are several factors to be considered in establishing a greenhouse range. A. Room for expansion –1. Land larger then immediate needs should be acquired. –2.Area should be added to this figure to accommodate service buildings, storage, and access drivers.
B. Topography –1. The building site should be as level as possible to reduce the cost of grading. –2. The site should be also well drained. Due to the vast amount of water in the green house it is always advisable to provide a drainage system. Try to select a site with deep, well drained loam, or sandy loam soil.
–3. You should select a site with a natural wind break such as a tree line or a hill. C. Land use Prediction –1. Local zoning and tax laws are subject to change brought on by development pressures. Such changes have brought about the termination of many greenhouse business.
D. Climate –1. The greenhouse site should be selected with specific crops in mind. E. Accessibility –1. A site should be selected which has easily accessible shipping routes. –2. Select a site that isn’t long distance. –3. Site location is often the deciding factor in the type of fuel used.
Types of Greenhouses Even Span Uneven Span Lean-to Quonset Gothic Arch Curvilinear Dome Shaped
Detached Greenhouses Detached Greenhouses - freestanding greenhouses that maybe constructed in one of several different styles.
Even Span Greenhouses A detached greenhouse style that is most commonly used today for single houses or for several houses connected together to form one huge structure. Usually have clear spans with truss supports rather then supporting columns without the columns the heat closures can be used to conserve energy
Uneven Span Greenhouses –One side of the roof is longer than the other side –When the longer side would face south, the suns heat could be used to maximum advantage –High fuel costs are causing growers to switch back to this type of greenhouse
Lean-to Greenhouses –Built against other greenhouses or building –The roof slopes to one direction usually facing south –Small and may be added to other structures –Used mostly for bulb-forcing or seed starting operations Lean-to-greenhouse: is a half a greenhouse,split along the peak of the roof or ridge. –This type of greenhouse is nice to have when space is a problem.
Quon-set Greenhouses –Used during World War II for storage sheds –inexpensive and easy to buildFreestanding style is often a Quonset. –Quonset is a arch shaped house, a bad thing about theses is the lack of height near the side walls.
Gothic-arch Greenhouses –Not widely used –Framework formed from laminated wooden trusses –The trusses are made up of a bunch of wood glued together –Potted plants are usually grown in this type of greenhouse
Curvilinear Greenhouses –Used in city parks, botanical gardens, and wealthy individuals as conservatories –Was used for large conservation.
Dome shaped greenhouse Rarely used in the common flower greenhouse, because it is such a small greenhouse. But it is usually found in at technical institutes.
Structure materials Galvanized steel rods make up the frame. The frame is covered with sheets of polyurethane with air space in between the two sheets to act as an insulation. Also glass and polyester can be used.
Greenhouse Materials Frame work components –Slash-sill provides a base for the glass. –Eave plate sits on side post supports roof members. –Gutter-collect runoff water and take it away from the building. –Drip gutter-condensation that forms on the inside of the glazing go to the ground.
–Slash-bars must carry weight of glazing material, snow, and wind. –The bar-caps hold glazing in place located on the exterior of the greenhouse. –Purloins run the length of the greenhouse to support the slash bars –Framing materials must be strong, light, and be able to cast a shadow.
Climate control The heating requirement of a greenhouse depends on the types of plants in the greenhouse. The greenhouse heating must be adequate to maintain the desired temperature day or night. Site location is often the deciding factor in the type of fuel used. In some regions natural gas has been a cheaper source of energy then other fuels.
Climate Control 1. Heating –The requirement for heating a greenhouse resides in the task of adding heat at the rate of which it is lost. –Heat is lost by conduction. –Unit heaters are often referred to as forced air heaters.
There are many types of heating oil, gas, wood, or electric.The heat can be distributed by forced hot air, radiant heat,hot water or steam. To keep greenhouses warm in the winter install fans to keep the heat circulating. Fuels
Air circulation Without the fans the hot air rises and the cold air settles around the plants. A small fan that blows 3 feet air in a min. is equal to one quarter of the air volume. In a small greenhouse you should place the fans diagonally opposite corners the goal is to develop a circular pattern of air movement.
Heating and Cooling Ducts
Ventilation Ventilation is the change from old air to new air. Natural ventilation is when you have vent in the ridge line of the roof. Mechanical ventilation - an exhaust fan to move the air out one end of the greenhouse while it is sucked in the other end.
Continue Ventilation needs may vary because with weather and seasons. First you must decide how much the greenhouse will be used. In summer one half the air amount needs to be changed. In the winter 20 to 30% of air volume changes.
Continue By using LS screens you can deflect solar radiation as needed. With a shade retention system you can open the side walls and or roof of the structure.
Water systems Water is an essential need. Hand watering is one way Automatic system can be designed to water as needed. Time clocks and mechanical evaporation can be used to control watering systems.