Presentation on theme: "Islamic Empires The Moors, The Ottomans, The Safavids, and the Mughals."— Presentation transcript:
Islamic Empires The Moors, The Ottomans, The Safavids, and the Mughals
Objectives Define a caliph. Name places that Islam spread through conquest. Describe the treatment of non-Muslims conquered by the Muslims. Explain who the Janissaries were. Contrast the differences between Sunni and Shia beliefs about caliphs.
Terms and People Abu Bakr became leader of the Muslims when Muhammad died. Caliph is the highest leader of the Muslims. Janissaries were fierce Ottoman soldiers fighting for Islam. Mehmed II was the Muslim that conquered Constantinople. I’m in charge here!
Terms and People Shia believe that only Muhammad’s descendants can become Caliph. Sunni don’t think Caliphs have to be related to Muhammad. Tolerance is allowing people to live their own lives. Sunni Shia
After Mohammed’s death, the Muslims chose Abu Bakr as the next leader. The leaders after Mohammed’s death are called caliphs. A dispute arose over who could become caliph. Abu Bakr Shia believe that only Muhammad’s descendants can become Caliph. Sunni don’t think Caliphs have to be related to Muhammad.
Mohammed and his men conquered most of Arabia. The next four caliphs conquered Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Persia. Before 750 AD, Muslims had conquered the rest of North Africa, Spain, and parts of India.
After conquering these nations, the Muslims passed laws that all non-Muslims had to follow: They had to pay special taxes. So they could be easily recognized, non-Muslims were forbidden to dress like Muslims. They could not share their faith convert anyone to their faith. In the case of the Ottomans, Christians had to give their boys to become soldiers to defend their Muslim conquerors.
732 Muslims invade France but are stopped by Charles Martel. I’m Charles Martel – Charles the Hammer! 711 Muslims invade and conquer Spain. It’s Hammer time! 600s Muslims conquer Christian North Africa. In 732, I stopped the Muslim invasion of Western Europe.
732 Muslims invade France but are stopped by Charles Martel. 711 Muslims invade and conquer Spain Muslim Ottomans invade the Balkans 1096–1099 Europe fights back with the First Crusade Muslims take Constantinople, capitol of the Byzantine Empire Ottomans lay siege to Vienna, capitol of Austria. 600s Muslims conquer Christian North Africa. The Muslims failed to take Vienna. This marked the farthest they invaded into Europe until the late 20 th Century.