Part One Preparation An Argument About the Sun How would you answer the children’s question? hotter or cooler: bigger or smaller: the angle between the sunlight and the surface of the earth varies constantly. bigger with only a small part of the sky bright enough to be seen against the sun at daybreak smaller with the huge bright sky against the sun at noon
Chinese Fables The Frog in the Shallow Well The Frog in the Shallow Well井底之蛙 His Spear Against His Shield His Spear Against His Shield以己之矛攻己之盾 Making His Mark Making His Mark刻舟求剑 Stealing a Bell with One's Ears Plugged Stealing a Bell with One's Ears Plugged掩耳盗铃 Blessing or Bane Blessing or Bane塞翁失马，焉知非福 The Vigil of the Tree Stump The Vigil of the Tree Stump守株待兔
Chinese Fables A Tiger behind the Fox A Tiger behind the Fox狐假虎威 The Hare and the Tortoise The Hare and the Tortoise龟兔赛跑 Life is like a short dream Life is like a short dream黄粱一梦 Old Horse Knows the Way Old Horse Knows the Way老马识途 Flute Player Safety in Numbers Flute Player Safety in Numbers滥竽充数 Be humble, and never hesitate to ask Be humble, and never hesitate to ask不耻下问
Chinese Fables The Sky is Falling (so worried the man from Qi.) The Sky is Falling (so worried the man from Qi.)杞人忧天 Old Man Moves a Mountain Old Man Moves a Mountain愚公移山 Carving Up an Ox Carving Up an Ox庖丁解牛 Three at Dusk and Four at Dawn Three at Dusk and Four at Dawn朝三暮四 Learning Three Things by Asking One Question Learning Three Things by Asking One Question举一反三
Greek Mythology What do you know about Greek Mythology? What do you know about Greek Mythology? Please look for certain information related to the mythology and get a general idea to it. Please look for certain information related to the mythology and get a general idea to it. Please read the information in exercise 4 on book page 50. Identify the gods or goddesses based on your understanding. Please read the information in exercise 4 on book page 50. Identify the gods or goddesses based on your understanding.
Greek Mythology The Olympians are a group of 12 gods who ruled after the overthrow ( 推翻 ) of the Titans ( 提坦家族 ). The Olympians are a group of 12 gods who ruled after the overthrow ( 推翻 ) of the Titans ( 提坦家族 ). All the Olympians are related in some way. All the Olympians are related in some way. They are named after their dwelling ( 居住） place Mount Olympus. They are named after their dwelling ( 居住） place Mount Olympus.
Greek Mythology Zeus Zeus Zeus overthrew ( 推翻 ) his Father Cronus. He then drew lots ( 抽签 ) with his brothers Poseidon and Hades. Zeus won the draw and became the supreme ruler of the gods. He is lord of the sky, the rain god. His weapon is a thunderbolt ( 霹雳 ) which he hurls at those who displease him. He is also known to punish those that lie or break oaths ( 誓言 ). He is married to Hera but, is famous for his many affairs ( 风 流事 ).
Greek Mythology Hera Hera Hera is Zeus wife and sister. She is the protector of marriage and takes special care of married women. Most stories concerning Hera have to do with her jealous revenge for Zeus‘s infidelities ( 不忠实 ). Her sacred animals are the cow and the peacock ( 孔雀 ).
Greek Mythology Poseidon Poseidon Poseidon is the brother of Zeus. He got prize as lord of the sea. He was widely worshiped by seamen.Zeus He once desired Demeter who asked him to make the most beautiful animal that the world had ever seen. So to impress her Poseidon created the first horse.Demeter His weapon is a trident ( 三角叉 ), which can shake the earth, and shatter any object. He is second only to Zeus in power amongst the gods.
Greek Mythology Aphrodite Aphrodite Aphrodite is the goddess of love, desire and beauty. In addition to her natural gifts she has a magical girdle ( 腰带 ) that compels ( 支配 ) anyone she wishes to desire her. She is the wife of Hephaestus. The myrtle ( 爱神树 )is her tree. The dove, the swan ( 天鹅 ), and the sparrow ( 麻雀 ) her birds.Hephaestus
Greek Mythology Hephaestus Hephaestus Hephaestus is the son of Zeus and Hera.ZeusHera He is the only god to be physically ugly. He is also lame. It is said that Hera, upset by having an ugly child, flung him from Mount Olympus into the sea, breaking his legs.Mount Olympus He is the god of fire and the forge ( 铸造 ). He is the smith and armorer ( 武器制造者 ) of the gods. He is the patron ( 守护神 ) god of both smiths and weavers.
Greek Mythology Ares Ares Ares is the son of Zeus and Hera. He was disliked by both parents.ZeusHera He is the god of war. He is considered murderous and bloodstained ( 血污的 ) but, also a coward ( 懦夫 ). When caught in an act of adultery ( 通奸 ) with Aphrodite her husband Hephaestus is able publicly ridicule him.AphroditeHephaestus His bird is the vulture (秃鹰). His animal is the dog.
Greek Mythology Artemis Artemis She is the lady of the wild things. She is the huntsman of the gods. She is the protector of the young. She is a virgin goddess, and the goddess of chastity ( 贞 节 ). She also presides over childbirth. The cypress ( 柏树 ) is her tree. All wild animals are scared ( 恐惧 ) to her, especially the deer. Artemis is the daughter of Zeus and Leto. Her twin brother is Apollo.Zeus LetoApollo
Greek Mythology Apollo Apollo He is the god of music, playing a golden lyre ( 七弦琴 ). The Archer ( 射手 ), far shooting with a silver bow. The god of healing who taught man medicine. The god of truth, who can not speak a lie. One of Apollo‘s more important daily tasks is to harness ( 披上甲胄 ) his chariot ( 战车 )with four horses an drive the Sun across the sky. the son of Zeus and Leto. His twin sister is Artemis.ZeusLetoArtemis
Greek Mythology Athena Athena Athena is the daughter of Zeus. She sprang full grown in armor ( 盔甲 ) from his forehead, thus has no mother.Zeus She is fierce and brave in battle but, only fights to protect the state and home from outside enemies. She is the goddess of the city, handicrafts, and agriculture. She is the embodiment of wisdom, reason, and purity. Her favorite city is Athens. Her tree is the olive. The owl is her bird.
Greek Mythology Hermes Hermes Hermes is the son of Zeus and Maia.ZeusMaia He is Zeus messenger. He is the fastest of the gods. He wears winged sandals ( 便鞋 ), a winged hat, and carries a magic wand ( 魔棒 ). He is the guide for the dead to go to the underworld.
Greek Mythology Demeter Demeter Demeter was the sister of Zeus and the mother of Persephone. Persephone Demeter was the goddess of agriculture.
Greek Mythology Dionysus Dionysus To satisfy Semele’s desire, Zeus took on his original shape as bright lightning. Semele could not suffer fieriness ( 炽热 ) and was scorched ( 烧焦 ). So Dionysus was raised up by fairies. When grown up, he went around the world with fairies to spread vine growing ( 葡萄栽培 ) method. So Dionysus was the god of wine. Dionysus was the son of Zeus and the mortal heroine Semele.
New Words & Phrases 1.Approval n. give one's approval to nod one's approval have sb.'s approval meet with sb.'s approval present / submit sth. to sb. for approval with / without approval of 批准 点头同意 得到某人的赞同 把某事提交某人批准 经 [ 未经 ]... 的批准
2 Feast v. (a) feast on sth (b) feast sb with sth (c) feast one’s eyes on sb/sth New Words & Phrases ~ enjoy a feast 宴饮；参加宴会 e.g. We feasted on chicken and coconuts. 我们吃鸡肉和椰子，大饱口福。 ~ provide sb with a feast 设宴款待（某人）；宴请（某人） e.g. They feasted their guests with delicacies. 他们用美味佳肴款待客人。 ~ enjoy the beauty of sb/sth 欣赏 … 之美；饱眼福 e.g. Our reporter feasted his eyes on the beautiful scene of Venice. 我们的记者饱览了威尼斯美丽的景色。
2. Feast n. give / make a feast make a feast of / upon Feast today makes fast tomorrow. a feast of eyes as (good) as a feast New Words & Phrases 请客 大吃, 饱吃 [ 谚 ] 今日大吃大喝, 明日肚皮挨饿。 眼福 绰绰有余, 足够
3. Grumble 3. Grumble v.grumble at/to sb about/at/over sth ~ complain or protest in a bad-tempered way 发怨言，鸣不平 e.g.Why grumble at me about your own stupid mistakes? 你自己犯了愚蠢的错误，为什么向我抱怨？ n.~ complaint 怨言，牢骚 e.g.I don’t want to hear another grumble from you. 我不愿再听到你的怨言了。 Grumbler n. ~ person who grumbles 埋怨者，发牢骚的人 e.g.He is a dreadful grumbler. 她是特别爱发牢骚的人 New Words & Phrases
4. Invitation n. Invite v.invite sb to/for sth 1)~ ask sb in a friendly or formal way to go somewhere or do sth 邀请，约请 e.g.Candidates will be invited for interview early next month. 下月初将约请候选人面试。 New Words & Phrases invite sb along invite sb back invite sb out invite sb in 邀某人做伴 邀请某人会自己家里做客；回请某人 邀请某人一同外出散步、骑马、客车、 娱乐等（尤指为谈情说爱） 邀请某人进入房间、房子等
4. Invitation n. Invite v. 2) ~ act so as to be likely to cause (sth bad) usu without intending to 招致（坏的东西），引起 e.g.Leaving your car unlocked is just inviting trouble! 汽车不上锁纯粹是自找麻烦！ Inviting adj. ~ tempting, attractive 诱人的，动人的 诱人的，动人的 e.g.an inviting smile, place, meal 动人的微笑、吸引人的场所、诱人的美餐 New Words & Phrases
5. Itch n. a)~ (usu sing) feeling of irritation on the skin, causing a desire to scratch 痒 e.g. suffer from, have, feel an itch 觉得痒 b) (sing) itch for sth/ to do sth (infml) ~ restless desire or longing 热望，渴望 e.g. She cannot resist the / her itch to travel. 她巴不得要去旅行。 New Words & Phrases
5. Itch v. a)~ have or cause an itch 发痒 e.g. Are your mosquito bites still itching? 蚊子咬的地方还痒吗？ b) itch for sth / to do sth (infml) ~ feel a strong restless desire for sth 渴望，热望 e.g. I’m itching to tell you the news! 我巴不得要把这消息告诉你！ Itchyadj. ~ having or producing irritation on the skin 发痒的 Get/have itchy feet (infml) ~ feel a restless desire to travel or move from place to place New Words & Phrases 渴望各处走动
Passage Reading Why The Tortoise’s Shell Is Not Smooth Why The Tortoise’s Shell Is Not Smooth
1. As soon as he heard of the great feast in the sky his throat began to itch at the very thought. (line. 11) 1.Thought n. At the thought of At first thought Beyond thought Without thought Give a thought to Collect one’s thought Second thoughts are best. 一想到 乍一想 意想不到的 不加考虑 想一想，考虑一下 集中思想 三思而后行
2. On the contrary, I am thoughtful and well- meaning. (line. 22) 2. Well-being = well-intentioned well-acted well-behaved well-beloved well-born well-done well-dressed well-paid well-read well-informed 表演得很好的 行为端正的，有礼貌的 深受爱戴的，受尊敬的 出身名门的，有高贵气质的 煮得熟透的，干得出色 穿着讲究的 报酬优厚的 读书多的，博学的 消息灵通的
3.Troublen. ask for trouble be a trouble to give sb. trouble make trouble make trouble for take (the) trouble I'll trouble you to borrow trouble no trouble (at all) 3. I have learned that a man who makes trouble for others is also making trouble for himself. (line. 23) 自讨苦吃 对... 是一个麻烦 ( 或讨厌的人 ) 麻烦人家 闹事, 捣乱 给... 带来麻烦 尽力设法 ; 不怕费事 劳驾你..., 请你... 自寻苦恼 ; 杞人忧天 [ 口 ] 这不费事, 容易得很, 没什么
4. Tongue a bitter [bad, wicked] tongue a long tongue a sharp tongue a smooth tongue an oily tongue have too much tongue tie sb.'s tongue a silver tongue on everyone's tongue (=on the tongues of men) 4. Tortoise had a sweet tongue, and within a short time all the birds agreed that he was a changed man, and they all gave him a feather, with which he made two splendidly colorful wings. (line. 25) 刻薄嘴 快嘴, 饶舌 言语尖刻 油嘴滑舌 甜言蜜语 ; 阿谀奉承 饶舌, 话多 封住某人的嘴 流利的口才 ; 能言善辩 ; 说话动听 被众人谈论
5. And so Tortoise ate the best part of the food and then drank two pots of palm wine, so that he was full of food and drink and his body grew fat enough to fill out his shell. (line. 64) 5. fill out ~ make or become larger, rounded or fatter 使膨胀，使扩张 fill in fill up ~ add what is necessary to complete 填写 ~ make or become quite full 填满，充满 fill up with petrol filling station fill up the tank 装满汽油 加油站 装满油箱
6. Deliverv. a) deliver sth to sb/sth ~ take (letters, parcels, goods, etc) to the places or people they are addressed to ~ take (letters, parcels, goods, etc) to the places or people they are addressed to 6. Parrot promised faithfully to deliver the message, and then flew away smiling to himself. (line. 76) 递送、传送 e.g.We deliver your order to your door! 我们送货上门！ b) deliver oneself of sth ~ state sth 发言，发表 e.g. deliver oneself of an opinion, a judgment, etc 发表意见、看法等
6. Deliverv. ~give (a lecture, sermon, speech, etc) 授 ( 课 ) 、讲 ( 道 ) 、讲 ( 话 ) e.g. She delivered a talk on philosophy to the society. 她给学会作了一次有关哲学的讲话。 6. Parrot promised faithfully to deliver the message, and then flew away smiling to himself. (line. 76)
Why The Tortoise’s Shell Is Not Smooth 1. How did Tortoise know about the birds’ activity? 2. What was the birds’ reaction when they knew Tortoise’s plan? 3. How was Tortoise able to convince the birds? 4. Why did Tortoise ask the question when they were invited to eat? 5. What did the birds do to revenge themselves on Tortoise? 6. How did Tortoise finally get back home? Please review the following questions related to the passage understanding. Please review the following questions related to the passage understanding.
1. Do you admire Tortoise for his cleverness or do you sympathize with all the birds? 2. What do you think is the moral of the story? Why The Tortoise’s Shell Is Not Smooth Please discuss the following questions in groups. Please discuss the following questions in groups.