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The work is done by second-year students of 1 medical faculty, group 206 : Anna Lebah Igor Gadomskiy Scientific leader: PhD in medical science, assistent.

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Presentation on theme: "The work is done by second-year students of 1 medical faculty, group 206 : Anna Lebah Igor Gadomskiy Scientific leader: PhD in medical science, assistent."— Presentation transcript:

1 The work is done by second-year students of 1 medical faculty, group 206 : Anna Lebah Igor Gadomskiy Scientific leader: PhD in medical science, assistent on the hystology department of CSMU, Igor Lugin Crimean State Medical University named after S. I. Georgievsky

2 Purpose To learn the main progresses of the world school of microscopy To learn the main progresses of the world school of microscopy To see the present tendencies and perspectives of the development of microscopic anatomy To see the present tendencies and perspectives of the development of microscopic anatomy Investigates the foundation of cytology, histology as a sciences which develops from microscopic anatomy. Investigates the foundation of cytology, histology as a sciences which develops from microscopic anatomy. To identified of perspectives of the development of microscopy To identified of perspectives of the development of microscopy

3 The Development of Microscopic Anatomy Microscopic anatomy was however developed in all of its potentiality by Marcello Malpighi (1628-1694) (fig.14). He described precisely the first stages in the embryonic development of chick, nerve and excretory systems of insects, vascular bundles in xylem of In vascular plants. He observed the alveolar structure of the lungs (fig.18), the papillary receptors on the tongue (fig.19), the connection between arterial and venous blood vessels (fig.20), identified the red blood cells and (fig.21).

4 The foundation of histology, cytology, patology Marie François Xavier Bichat 1801 He was the first investigator to discern textural differences in the various parts of the body and to use the term tissue. Bichat classify 21 types of tissue in the human body, and his work became the basis of modern histology and pathological anatomy. Giovanni Battista Amici (1786-1863) constructed numerous optical systems of the highest quality. In particular, he designed a compound reflection microscope in which the effects of chromatic aberration were eliminated. From his accounts ledger, we learn that he made about 300 microscopes; he also produced excellent telescopes, micrometers, and other equipment. He investigates stoma (stomata) is a pore, found in the leaf and stem epidermis that is used for gas exchange. Johannes Evangelist Purkinje (17 December 1787 - 28 July 1869). He is best known for his 1837 discovery of Purkinje cells, large neurons with many branching dendrites found in the cerebellum, Purkinje fibers in Conducting system of heart and introduced the scientific terms plasma and protoplasm

5 The foundation of cytology. Cell theory & chromosome theory Credit for developing cell theory is usually given to three scientists: Theodor Schwann, Matthias Jakob Schleiden, and Rudolf Virchow. In 1839, Schwann and Schleiden suggested that cells were the basic unit of life. Their theory accepted the first two tenets of modern cell theory (see next section, below). However the cell theory of Schleiden differed from modern cell theory in that it proposed a method of spontaneous crystallization that he called "Free Cell Formation"[8]. In 1858, Rudolf Virchow concluded that all cells come from pre-existing cells, Omnis cellula ad cellula Theodor Heinrich Boveri (1862 – 1915) His work with sea urchins showed that it was necessary to have all chromosomes present in order for proper embryonic development to take place. This discovery was an important part of the Boveri-Sutton chromosome theory

6 Neurohistology and works of Camillo Golgi &Santiago Ramón y Cajal Camillo Golgi (1843 – 1926) was an Italian physician, pathologist, scientist, and Nobel laureate. He experimented with metal impregnation of nervous tissue, using mainly silver (silver staining) silver-bichromate staining technique. He called his discovery the "black reaction" (in Italian, reazione negra), which later received his name (Golgi's method) or Golgi stain. Using his staining technique, Golgi identified the intracellular reticular apparatus in 1898 which bears his name, the Golgi apparatus. Golgi demonstrated the branching of the axons, histology of hippocampus and described Golgi tendon organ, the Golgi-Mazzoni corpuscles Santiago Ramón y Cajal ( 1852 – 1934) was a Spanish histologist, neuroscientist, and Nobel laureate. The father of modern neuroscience. He founded Interstitial cell of Cajal (ICC) is a type of interstitial cell found in the gastrointestinal tract. Ramón y Cajal was a fierce defender of the neuron theory.

7 Histology in Italy Adelchi Negri (1876 – 1912) was an Italian pathologist and microbiologist. In 1903 he discovered the eponymous Negri bodies, which are cytoplasmatic inclusion bodies located in the Purkinje cells of the cerebral cortex in cases of rabies in animals and humans. Filippo Pacini (1812–1883) was a n Italian anatomist and histologist In 1854 he described the The Asiatic Cholera Pandemic of 1846-63 which swept through Florence in 1845–1846 in a paper called "Microscopical observations and pathological deductions on cholera" With a new microscope, perfected by Pacini and built with the assistance of Giovanni Battista Amici (1786-1863), he investigated the human retina and published his results in 1844. Pacini saw the corpuscles that are now named for him early in his career; in 1840, when his Nuovi organi scoperti nel corpo umano appeared. Angelo Ruffini (1864 – 1929) was an Italian histologist and embryologist. He was the first to describe small encapsulated nerve endings (mechanoreceptors) which were to become known as Ruffini corpuscles. He used a gold chloride stain on his microscope slides in order for to view the tiny corpuscles. Alfonso Giacomo Gaspare Corti (1822 –1876) He was the first to describe the mammalian auditory system. Enrico Sertoli (1842 -1910) was an Italian physiologist and histologist Sertoli is remembered for his 1865 discovery of the eponymous Sertoli cell. These cells line the tubuli seminiferi contorti of the testis, and provide nourishment and support for developing sperm.

8 Histology in Germany Albert von Kölliker(1817–1905) Kölliker's contributions to histology were widespread; smooth muscle, striated muscle, skin, bone, teeth, blood vessels and viscera.He was found granule-like structures in muscle cells, Which later was named “mitochondria.” Heinrich Wilhelm Gottfried von Waldeyer-Hartz (1836 -1921, famous for consolidating the neuron theory of organization of the nervous system and for naming the chromosome. Waldeyer is honoured in the neurosciences as the founder, in 1891, of the so-called "neuron theory" and for coining the term "neuron" to describe the basic structural unit of the nervous system. Walther Flemming (1843 – 1905) was a German biologist and a founder of cytogenetics.Making use of aniline dyes he was able to find a structure which strongly absorbed basophilic dyes, which he named chromatin. He identified that chromatin was correlated to threadlike structures in the cell nucleus— the chromosomes (meaning coloured body) Franz Nissl (1860 –1919) was a german neuropathologist. He is represented a new staine for identification neurones in CNS Georg Meissner (1829 – 1905) was a German anatomist and physiologist.His name is associated with Meissner's corpuscles, which are mechanoreceptors that are responsible for sensitivity to light touch.

9 Histology in Russia Alexander Gavrilovich Gurwitsch(1874– 1954) originated the morphogenetic field theory and discovered the biophoton. He specialise in embryology in laboratory of Karl Wilhelm von Kupffer in Munich University 1897 Vladimir Alekseyevich Betz 1834 - 1894) – Russian anatomist and histologist, professor of the Kiev University, famous for the discovery of giant pyramidal neurons of primary motor cortex. Alexandre Stanislavovitch Dogiel(1852- 1922). His name is associated withDogiel cells - the different cell types in cerebrospinal ganglia. Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov 1845 –1916 Russian biologist, zoologist and protozoologist, best remembered for his pioneering research into the immune system Mechnikov's work on phagocytes won him the Nobel Prize in 1908. Alexander A. Maximow (1874-1928), renowned for his experimental work confirming the unitarian theory of hematopoiesis: all blood cells develop from a common precursor cell.

10 Conclusion Таким образом, итальянская школы микроскопии и исследования итальянских учёных на протяжении четырёх веков стали тем базисом который позволил расширить рамки научного направления микроскопических исследований до общебиологической парадигмы ультрамикроскопических методов изучения разнообразных живых организмов, в результате чего усилиями учёных многих европейских стран были созданы современные направления биологической науки, одно из которых представлено цитологией и гистологией. Формирование цитологии и гистологии происходило в результате успешных научных открытий учёных гистологов из разных стран Европы, но итальянская, немецкая и русская научные школы микроскопической анатомии вошли в мировую науку и культуру благодаря фундаментальным открытиям, многие из которых сохраняют свою актуальность.

11 Conclusion Thus, Italian schools of microscopy and research of the Italian scientists during four centuries is a basis which created a many scientific directions of microscopic researches that’s modified a paradigms in biology in to microscopic methods of studying of various live organisms therefore had been created modern directions of the biological science, one of which is cytology and histology. The Development of cytology and histology is as a result of successful discoveries of histologists from the different countries of Europe, but the Italian, German and Russian scientific schools of microscopic anatomy play the key role in this process, because the fundamental discovery of Camillo Golgi, Franz Nissl, Vladimir Betz and others still interesting and doesn’t clear fully.


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