Presentation on theme: "The Revelation to John. Best known parts: The Eschatological Woes Portrayed 3 Times: in Cycles of 7 Plagues 7 Seals (Rev 6) 7 Trumpets (Rev 8- 9; 11.15-19)"— Presentation transcript:
Best known parts: The Eschatological Woes Portrayed 3 Times: in Cycles of 7 Plagues 7 Seals (Rev 6) 7 Trumpets (Rev 8- 9; 11.15-19) 7 Bowls (Rev 15- 16) The Cloisters Apocalypse
The Left Behind Parts of Revelation Visions of God’s Glory The Worship of God in Hymns as Creator as Redeemer as Ruler of All The Hope for a Better World in which God Rules over all
Subtext: Revelation: Beloved by Artists and Musicians Revelation: the Most Illustrated Book of the Bible
Artistic Representations of Revelation: To Remember The Cloisters Apocalypse (ca.1320-30) The Flemish Apocalypse (ca. 1400- 1425) Jan van Eijk, Altarpiece St. Bavo Cathedral, Ghent ca. 1432 Albrecht Dürer, Apocalypse (1511) William Blake (1757-1827) Robert Roberg (b. 1943): The River of the Water of Life
Two Central Themes The Kingdom (Rule) of God at the Present Time (Rev 4) at the Eschaton (Rev 21-22) The Two Advents of Christ as Jesus: the Suffering Lamb (Rev 5) as Triumphant Warrior who reigns in the Eschaton (Rev 19-22)
The Hymns of Revelation *Revelation 4.8,11: Holy Holy, Holy *Revelation 5.9-13: Worthy is the Lamb Revelation 7.11-17 *Revelation 11.15-18: He will reign for ever and ever Revelation 12.10-12 (Revelation 14:13: Who from their labors rest) Revelation 15.3-4 Revelation 16.5-7 *Revelation 19.1-8 Hallelujah! (Revelation 19:16: King of Kings and Lord of Lords) (Revelation 21.3-4--poetry)
Outline of the Revelation to John Rev 1: Introduction: John’s Vision Rev 2-3: 7 Letters to 7 Churches *Rev 4-5: The Kingdom of God in Heaven Rev 6-9: 7 Seals: 7 Plagues 7 Trumpets: 7 Plagues Rev 10-14: Interlude: Christians in the Present Rev 15-16: 7 Bowls: 7 Plagues Rev 17-19.10: Lady Babylon *Rev 19.11-20.5: Christ’s Second Coming; the Millennium; Final Defeat of Satan *Rev 21-22.5: Lady Jerusalem-- Kingdom of God: over ALL: new heaven and new earth Rev 22.6-21: Conclusion
The Revelation to John: Part I: Revelation 1-11 Albrecht Dürer, 1511 The Four Horsemen of Rev 6
Revelation 1: John on Patmos Revelation 1.9: “I John, your brother, who share with you in Jesus the persecution and the kingdom and the patient endurance was on the island called Patmos because of the word of God and the testimony of Jesus.”
Vision of the exalted Christ Revelation 1.12-20 John Sees the Son of Man amidst 7 Golden Lampstands Christ addresses the 7 churches of Western Turkey Description echoes Old Testament texts: Dan 7.13; 10.5-9 Bamberg Apocalypse, ca. 1000
I AM: Christ as Alpha and Omega Revelation 1:17 [John tells of his vision of the glorified Christ] “When I saw him, I fell at his feet as though dead. But he placed his right hand on me, saying, ‘Do not be afraid; I am the first and the last, 18 and the living one. I was dead, and see, I am alive for ever and ever; and I have the keys of Death and of Hades.” Revelation 22:12-13 [Christ speaks]: “‘See, I am coming soon; my reward is with me, to repay according to everyone’s work. 13 I am the Alpha and the Omega, the first and the last, the beginning and the end.’
The Central Vision Revelation 4 John is Snatched up to Heaven to see God’s Heavenly Throne Room A Vision of the Kingship = Kingdom of God God is Worshipped by 24 elders and countless throngs of angels Revelation 4-5 God and the Lamb The Cloisters Apocalypse, 1320-30
God’s Kingdom celebrated in Hymn #1: Rev 4.8 &11 7 Around the throne, and on each side of the throne, are four living creatures, full of eyes in front and behind... 8 And the four living creatures, each of them with six wings, are full of eyes all around and inside. Day and night without ceasing they sing, ‘Holy, holy, holy, the Lord God the Almighty, who was and is and is to come.’ 9 And whenever the living creatures give glory and honour and thanks to the one who is seated on the throne, who lives for ever and ever, 10 the twenty-four elders fall before the one who is seated on the throne and worship the one who lives for ever and ever; they **cast their crowns** before the throne, singing, 11 ‘You are worthy, our Lord and God, to receive glory and honour and power, for you created all things, and by your will they existed and were created.’
Old Testament Background of Hymn... Isaiah 6:2-3: “In the Year that Uzziah died, I saw the Lord sitting on a throne.. and the hem of his throne filled the temple.. Seraphs were in attendance above him … And one called to another: “Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of hosts; the whole earth is full of his glory”
... And Later Echoes: Holy, holy, holy! Lord God Almighty! [Rev 4:8: Isa 6:3] Early in the morning our song shall rise to Thee; Holy, holy, holy, merciful and mighty! God in three Persons, blessèd Trinity! Holy, holy, holy! All the saints adore Thee, Casting down their golden crowns around the glassy sea; [Rev 4:10] Cherubim and seraphim falling down before Thee, Who was, and is, and evermore shall be. [Rev 4:8] Holy, holy, holy! though the darkness hide Thee, Though the eye of sinful man Thy glory may not see; Only Thou art holy; there is none beside Thee, Perfect in power, in love, and purity. Holy, holy, holy! Lord God Almighty! All Thy works shall praise Thy Name, in earth, and sky, and sea; Holy, holy, holy; merciful and mighty! God in three Persons, blessèd Trinity! The Episcopal Hymnal 362 (Recasts Rev 4 and Isaiah 6) William Blake
The Two Advents of Christ First Coming: Christ as Lamb of God His Sacrificial Death Revelation 5 Second Coming Christ Comes for Final Defeat of Evil And to Establish the Kingdom of God Revelation 19:11-22:5
Revelation 5: The Lion of Judah Appears before God as a Lamb and Receives Worship He Is Worthy to Open the Scroll = the Eschatological Plan of God Sacrificial Death of Christ as Initial Victory over Satan Revelation 5: A Key to the Action of the Book The Cloisters Apocalypse, 1320-30
FIRST VICTORY OF LAMB CELEBRATED IN HYMN #2: REVELATION 5: 11 Then I looked, and I heard the voice of many angels surrounding the throne and the living creatures and the elders; they numbered myriads of myriads and thousands of thousands, 12 singing with full voice, ‘Worthy is the Lamb that was slaughtered to receive power and wealth and wisdom and might and honour and glory and blessing!’ 13 Then I heard every creature in heaven and on earth and under the earth and in the sea, and all that is in them, singing, ‘To the one seated on the throne and to the Lamb be blessing and honour and glory and might for ever and ever!’ 14 And the four living creatures said, ‘Amen!’ And the elders fell down and worshipped.
#2 “Worthy is the lamb that was slain, and hath redeemed us to God by his blood, to receive power, and riches, and wisdom, and strength, and honour, and glory, and blessing.” #3 “Blessing and honour, glory and power be unto Him that sitteth upon the throne, and unto the Lamb, for ever and ever. (Rev 5:12-13) “Amen” (Chorus) "And the four living creatures said 'Amen!" HANDEL’s MESSIAH
The Adoration of the Lamb Jan van Eijk, Altarpiece St. Bavo Cathedral, Ghent ca. 1432
Episcopal Hymnal 439 Wondrous Love What wondrous love is this, O my soul, O my soul! What wondrous love is this, O my soul! What wondrous love is this that caused the Lord of bliss To bear the dreadful curse for my soul, for my soul, To bear the dreadful curse for my soul. When I was sinking down, sinking down, sinking down, When I was sinking down, sinking down, When I was sinking down beneath God’s righteous frown, Christ laid aside His crown for my soul, for my soul, Christ laid aside His crown for my soul. To God and to the Lamb, I will sing, I will sing; To God and to the Lamb, I will sing. To God and to the Lamb Who is the great “I Am”; While millions join the theme, I will sing, I will sing; While millions join the theme, I will sing. And when from death I’m free, I’ll sing on, I’ll sing on; And when from death I’m free, I’ll sing on. And when from death I’m free, I’ll sing and joyful be; And through eternity, I’ll sing on, I’ll sing on; And through eternity, I’ll sing on. Reflects Rev 5 and Rev 1.17; 22:13
REVELATION 5 and The Rest of Revelation The Sacrifical Death of Christ Begins the Final Events Battle between Good and Evil begins in Earnest: Cross as Preliminary Victory (Rev 5) Eschatological Woes: Plagues on Earth (Rev 6-9; 15-16) Battles: Michael and Satan (Rev 12); Lamb and followers vrs. the Beast (Rev 13-14) ****** SECOND COMING OF CHRIST (Rev 19): Completes the Final Events Final Defeat of Satan Resurrection and Judgment of All People The New Jerusalem/ the Lake of Fire
Revelation: Part II Revelation 12-22: The Last Battle Victory of Good over Evil
The Cosmic Battle Saint Michael Battles Against Satan Revelation 12 Michael = the Chief of the 7 Archangels He Throws Satan=the Dragon out of Heaven Cloisters Apocalypse, 1320-30
Satan Attacks the Woman Revelation 12.1-6: The Woman Clothed with the Sun = Mother of the Messiah Revelation 12:13-17 Excluded from Heaven Satan Works Mischief on Earth Attacking the Woman clothed with the Sun a with a Flood of Water Cloisters Apocalypse, 1320-30
Revelation 13 The Beast from the Sea The Roman Emperor as Agent of Satan
Completion of God’s Plan for Salvation and Judgment Revelation 19:11-22:5 Second Coming of Christ As Rider on a White Horse Final Defeat of Evil and Death Resurrection of the Dead The Last Judgment The Kingdom of God = the New Jerusalem The Flemish Apocalypse (ca. 1400-1425)
The Second Coming of Christ REVELATION 19:11-16 11 Then I saw heaven opened, and there was a white horse! Its rider is called Faithful and True, and in righteousness he judges and makes war. 12 His eyes are like a flame of fire, and on his head are many diadems; and he has a name inscribed that no one knows but himself. 13 He is clothed in a robe dipped in blood, and his name is called The Word of God.... 15 From his mouth comes a sharp sword with which to strike down the nations, and he will rule them with a rod of iron; he will tread the wine press of the fury of the wrath of God the Almighty. 16 On his robe and on his thigh he has a name inscribed, **‘King of kings and Lord of lords’.**
FINAL VICTORY OF CHRIST CELEBRATED IN HYMNS #3 AND #4 Hymn #3: Revelation 11:15-16 Hymn #4: Revelation 19:1-8 Elders Singing Cathedral Door
Hymn #3 Revelation 11:15-16 ANTICIPATES THE FINAL VICTORY OF REVELATION 19 15 Then the seventh angel blew his trumpet, and there were loud voices in heaven, saying, ‘The kingdom of the world has become the kingdom of our Lord and of his Messiah [Christ] and he will reign for ever and ever.’ 16 Then the twenty-four elders who sit on their thrones before God fell on their faces and worshipped God, 17 singing, ‘We give you thanks, Lord God Almighty, who are and who were, for you have taken your great power and begun to reign.’
Hymn #4: Revelation 19:1-7 1 After this I heard what seemed to be the loud voice of a great multitude in heaven, saying, ‘Hallelujah! Salvation and glory and power to our God, 2 for his judgements are true and just; he has judged the great whore who corrupted the earth with her fornication, and he has avenged on her the blood of his servants.’... 4 And the twenty-four elders and the four living creatures fell down and worshipped God who is seated on the throne, saying, ‘Amen. Hallelujah!’... 6 Then I heard what seemed to be the voice of a great multitude, like the sound of many waters and like the sound of mighty thunder-peals, crying out, ‘Hallelujah! For the Lord our God the Almighty reigns. 7 Let us rejoice and exult and give him the glory, for the marriage of the Lamb has come.
Handel’s Chorus Hallelujah! [Rev 19:6] Hallelujah! For the Lord God omnipotent reigneth. The kingdom of this world is become [Rev 11:15] the kingdom of our Lord and of His Christ; and he shall reign for ever and ever. King of Kings, and Lord of Lords. [19:16] Forever and ever. Hallelujah! Combines verses from three parts of Revelation Revelation 19:6 (a Hymn); 11:15 (a Hymn); 19:16 (Description of Christ at his Second Coming)
The Saints take Part in the Victory of Christ Revelation 14:13: ”And I heard a voice from heaven saying, ‘Write this: Blessed are the dead who from now on die in the Lord.’ ‘Yes,’ says the Spirit, ‘they will rest from their labours, for their deeds follow them.’” Message of Revelation: Christians are called to Faithful Witness to Christ And to Follow him in Suffering Albrecht Dürer, 1511 The Lamb on Mount Zion With the Faithful Christians
For All the Saints Episcopal Hymnal 287 Combines several texts from Revelation Alludes to Revelation 14:13; 19:1-8; 2:10-11; 21:21 For all the saints, who from their labors rest (Rev 14:13) Who Thee by faith before the world confessed, Thy Name, O Jesus, be forever blessed. Alleluia, Alleluia! (Rev 19:1-8) REVELATION 14:1, 12- 13 (compareRev 6:9-11) 1 Then I looked, and there was the Lamb, standing on Mount Zion! And with him were one hundred and forty-four thousand who had his name and his Father’s name written on their foreheads... 12 Here is a call for the endurance of the saints, those who keep the commandments of God and hold fast to the faith of Jesus. 13 And I heard a voice from heaven saying, ‘Write this: Blessed are the dead who from now on die in the Lord.’ ‘Yes,’ says the Spirit, ‘they will rest from their labours, for their deeds follow them.’
For All the Saints, Stanza 2 O may Thy soldiers, faithful, true and bold, Fight as the saints who nobly fought of old, And win with them the victor’s crown of gold. (Rev 2:10-11) Alleluia, Alleluia! REVELATION 2:10-11 Do not fear what you are about to suffer. Beware, the devil is about to throw some of you into prison so that you may be tested, and for ten days you will have affliction. Be faithful until death, and I will give you the crown of life. 11 Let anyone who has an ear listen to what the Spirit is saying to the churches. Whoever conquers will not be harmed by the second death.
For All the Saints, Stanza 3 Thou wast their Rock, their Fortress and their Might; Thou, Lord, their Captain in the well fought fight; Thou, in the darkness drear, their one true Light. Alleluia, Alleluia! REVELATION 21:22-23 THE NEW JERUSALEM Light 22 I saw no temple in the city, for its temple is the Lord God the Almighty and the Lamb. 23 And the city has no need of sun or moon to shine on it, for the glory of God is its light, and its lamp is the Lamb. Jerusalem Light Cathedral, Aachen Jerusalem Light Hildesheim Germany
For All the Saints, Stanza 4 And when the strife is fierce, the warfare long, Steals on the ear the distant triumph song, (Rev 19:1-8) And hearts are brave, again, and arms are strong. Alleluia, Alleluia! REVELATION 19:6 6 Then I heard what seemed to be the voice of a great multitude, like the sound of many waters and like the sound of mighty thunder-peals, crying out, ‘Hallelujah! For the Lord our God the Almighty reigns.
For All the Saints, Stanza 5 From earth’s wide bounds, from ocean’s farthest coast, Through gates of pearl streams in the countless host, (Rev 21:21) And singing to Father, Son and Holy Ghost: Alleluia, Alleluia! (Rev 19:6) REVELATION 21: THE NEW JERUSALEM 19 The foundations of the wall of the city are adorned with every precious stone... 21 And the twelve gates are twelve pearls, each of the gates is a single pearl, and the street of the city is pure gold, transparent as glass.... The Flemish Apocalypse (ca. 1400-1425)
For all the saints, who from their labors rest (Rev 14:13) Who Thee by faith before the world confessed, Thy Name, O Jesus, be forever blessed. Alleluia, Alleluia! (Rev 19:1-8) O may Thy soldiers, faithful, true and bold, Fight as the saints who nobly fought of old, And win with them the victor’s crown of gold. (Rev 2:10-11) Alleluia! Thou wast their Rock, their Fortress and their Might; Thou, Lord, their Captain in the well fought fight; Thou, in the darkness drear, their one true Light. Alleluia! And when the strife is fierce, the warfare long, Steals on the ear the distant triumph song, (Rev 19:1-8) And hearts are brave, again, and arms are strong. Alleluia! From earth’s wide bounds, from ocean’s farthest coast, Through gates of pearl streams in the countless host, (Rev 21:21) And singing to Father, Son and Holy Ghost: Alleluia, Alleluia! (Rev 19:6)
Revelation 21-22: The New Jerusalem “And I Saw the holy city, the new Jerusalem coming down From Heaven, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband.” [Rev 21:1] Relates to Rev 4: Worship of God in Heaven Compare The Lord’s Prayer:“Thy Kingdom Come, on earth (Rev 21- 22) as it is in Heaven (Rev 4-5).” The Establishment of the Kingdom/ Kingship of God: A Perfect State of Affairs Cloisters Apocalypse
The New Jerusalem: The Navarre Beatus, 12 th Century Revelation 21:16 The city lies foursquare, its length the same as its width....
The New Jerusalem: Zion, City of our God Glorious things of thee are spoken, Zion, city of our God! He, whose Word cannot be broken, Formed thee for His own abode. On the Rock of Ages founded, What can shake thy sure repose? With salvation’s walls surrounded, Thou may’st smile at all thy foes. See! the streams of living waters, Springing from eternal love; Well supply thy sons and daughters, And all fear of want remove: Who can faint while such a river Ever flows their thirst t’assuage? Grace, which like the Lord, the Giver, Never fails from age to age. Episcopal Hymnbook 522 The Flemish Apocalypse (ca. 1400-1425)
Glorious Things of Thee are Spoken. Stanza 2 See! the streams of living waters, Springing from eternal love; Well supply thy sons and daughters, And all fear of want remove: Who can faint while such a river Ever flows their thirst t’assuage? Grace, which like the Lord, the Giver, Never fails from age to age. Revelation 22 1 Then the angel showed me the river of the water of life, bright as crystal, flowing from the throne of God and of the Lamb 2 through the middle of the street of the city. On either side of the river is the tree of life with its twelve kinds of fruit, producing its fruit each month; and the leaves of the tree are for the healing of the nations.... the throne of God and of the Lamb will be in it, and his servants will worship him; 4 they will see his face... 5 And there will be no more night; they need no light of lamp or sun, for the Lord God will be their light, and they will reign for ever and ever. The river of the water of life, Robert Roberg 1991-95
William Blake: Jerusalem from “A Preface to Milton” (ca. 1804) And did those feet in ancient time Walk upon England's mountains green? And was the holy Lamb of God On England's pleasant pastures seen? And did the Countenance Divine Shine forth upon our clouded hills? And was Jerusalem builded here Among these dark Satanic mills? Bring me my bow of burning gold: Bring me my arrows of desire: Bring me my spear: O clouds unfold! Bring me my chariot of fire. I will not cease from mental fight, Nor shall my sword sleep in my hand Till we have built Jerusalem In England's green and pleasant land.
Sources of Blake’s Poem “Jerusalem” Revelation 5:6-13; 19:11-16; 21:1-4, (apocryphal story of Jesus); 2 Kings 2:11 The text of the poem was inspired by an apocryphal story that Jesus, while still a young man, accompanied by Joseph of Arimathea, came to the English town of Glastonbury. This is linked with an idea from the Book of Revelation that describes a Second Coming in which Jesus establishes a new Jerusalem. The Christian Church in general, and the English Church in particular, often used Jerusalem as a metaphor for heaven. It is a place where love is universal and all is well in contrast to the 'dark satanic mills'. The term "dark satanic mills", which entered the English language from this poem, is most often interpreted as referring to the early industrial revolution and its destruction of nature.
Interpretation of Blake’s “Jerusalem” Blake had a strong interest in social and political reform. Often he cloaked his social idealism and political statements in Protestant mystical allegory. This poem expresses his desire for radical change without overt sedition. It is followed in the preface by a quotation from Numbers ch. 11, v. 29: “Would to God that all the Lord's people were prophets.” Some of Blake's biographers have concluded that he believed in the legend of a visit of Jesus to England, but he may not have intended such a literal interpretation. Instead the poem may say that that there may, or may not, have been a divine visit when there was briefly heaven in England, but that was then; now we should accept the challenge to create such a country once more. It has thus inspired soldiers and anyone else with a social conscience. This interpretation of Revelation 21-22 has something in common with post-millennialist interpretation (found for example in early days of America), the belief that humans must build a New Jerusalem before Christ would return.
William Blake/ Jerusalem Set to Music by Charles Parry And did those feet in ancient time Walk upon England's mountains green? And was the holy Lamb of God On England's pleasant pastures seen? And did the Countenance Divine Shine forth upon our clouded hills? And was Jerusalem builded here Among these dark Satanic mills? Bring me my bow of burning gold: Bring me my arrows of desire: Bring me my spear: O clouds unfold! Bring me my chariot of fire. I will not cease from mental fight, Nor shall my sword sleep in my hand Till we have built Jerusalem In England's green and pleasant land.
The Lord’s Prayer Thy Kingdom Come, on earth (Rev 21-22) as it is in Heaven (Rev 4-5). “I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end.”