Presentation on theme: "Influence of Manga in Hong Kong"— Presentation transcript:
1 Influence of Manga in Hong Kong United College Final Year ProjectSimon Sun Bo 孫博－Jimmy, Sinn Lok Tsun 冼樂浚Robbie Tang Wing Kuen 鄧永權Sara Xia Zhihan 夏芷涵United College Final Year Project Group 167Supervisor: Prof. Wong King Young
2 BackgroundFrom 1980s to present, Japanese comics show a huge increase in popularity and influences in Asia.GrowthIn Hong Kong, Japanese comics have become one of the most popular forms of entertainment.Entertainment
3 This can be shown by the penetration of Japanese cultures, the Animation, Comics & Games Expo, comic café,…..etc.Source: ACGHK 2012 info
4 Introduction Readers (Individual) Hong Kong as a whole Are those influences all good to readers?Can they inculcate positive messages into adolescents’ minds?Hong Kong as a wholeTo investigate whether Japanese comics have influences on other industries or society of Hong Kong.
5 IntroductionThis is the goal of our project: To identify the influences of Japanese manga in Hong Kong and investigate their effects.Frame of our work:Identify CharacteristicsPropose InfluencesCollect Data or InformationVerify our proposal by resultsDraw Conclusions
6 Outline Background Research Methodology Characteristics of Japanese MangaInfluence on Hong KongHong Kong comic industryPeople MindPeople LifeSocietyPropagation and PublisherHong Kong Film IndustryConclusion
8 Methodology(1) Overview To study the influence that Japanese Manga bring to Hong Kong society ,the following research methods are used:Reading paperReading Japanese Manga & Hong Kong comicsQuestionnaire
9 Methodology(2) Reading Paper The following works are read in order to have a good understanding of Manga and its propagation in Hong Kong.Ng Wai-ming (2002). The Impact of Japanese Comics and Animation in Asia. Journal of Japanese Trade & Industry, July / August 2002,John A. Lent (1999). Local Comic Books and the Curse of Manga in Hong Kong, South Korea and Taiwan. Asian Journal of Communication, 9(1), doi: /
10 Methodology(3) Reading Manga and Hong Kong comics In order to have a specific view on type, content, style of Jap Manga and Hong Kong comics:Jap MangaSlam dunk /男儿当入樽 ( ), 井上雄彥Wild 7 / 七金剛 （ ）,望月三起也Fullmetal Alchemist /鋼の錬金術師/鋼之煉金術師 ( ), 荒川弘Naruto (1999-),岸本齊史One Piece (1997-),尾田栄一郎Hong Kong comics中華英雄（ ）,馬榮成風雲（1989-），馬榮成龍虎門（ ），黃玉郎
11 Methodology(4) Questionnaire To study how Jap comic influence on Hong Kong citizens21 questions in totalPeriods: 26/10/ /10/2012Collecting samples: 225
12 Characteristics of Japanese Manga Sun Bo 孫博 IEE/4
13 Characteristics of Japanese Manga Industry matureGenreAuthor Working StylePropagation MethodAnimeAmountSubcultureViolence ContentMoe/萌
14 Characteristics of Japanese Manga- Mature Industry (1) Genre :Intended readers:Shonen manga (少年漫畫);Shoujo manga (少女漫畫)；Seinen manga (青年漫畫)；Josei manga (女性漫畫)；Hentai manga (成人漫畫)…
15 Characteristics of Japanese Manga- Mature Industry (2) Genre：Themes :Campus (Cardcaptor Sakura/カードキャプターさくら/百變小櫻）Sports (Slam Dunk/男兒當入樽/灌籃高手)Adventure (One Piece/海賊王)Fantasy (Fullmetal Alchemist/鋼之煉金術師)Comedy (Gin Tama/銀魂)History (Rurouni Kenshin/l浪客劍心 )…NEED TO ADD CHINESE & JAPANESE EXPLANSION
16 Characteristics of Japanese Manga- Mature Industry (3) Slam DunkOne PieceFullmetal Alchemist
17 Characteristics of Japanese Manga- Mature Industry (4) Authors’ Working Style:Story SetRough Draft First DraftPress CensorshipTracing Applying ScreentonesPublishingComics artist always need at least two assistants.Facing fierce competition (Especially for weekly manga artists)
18 Characteristics of Japanese Manga- Mature Industry (5) Propagation MethodWeekly magazines: Weekly Shōnen Jump(少年週刊 Jump); Weekly Shōnen Magazine(少年週刊 Magazine); ……Tankōbon(單行本): a sum-up version of manga of one artist;E-edition: COMIC SEED! (双葉社, ,28);Piracy: Spreading into overseas (China,U.S,Europe);Anime: Covered in following slides;
19 Characteristics of Japanese Manga- Mature Industry (6) Anime & Manga:Manga Anime:Royalty to origins / Adapted the originsFullmetal Alchemist: Brotherhood (2009) vs Fullmetal Alchemist (2003)Akiyuki Shinbo(新房昭之): Crushing the origins(“原作粉碎機”):Dance In The Vampire Bund/ダンス イン ザ ヴァンパイアバンド/吸血鬼 同盟(2010)Promoting manga popularity
20 Characteristics of Japanese Manga- Mature Industry (7) Fullmetal Alchemist (2003)Fullmetal Alchemist: Brotherhood (2009)Fullmetal Alchemist (Manga)
21 Characteristics of Japanese Manga- Mature Industry (8) Anime & Manga:Anime Manga: often adapted from famous Anime.Puella Magi Madoka Magica /魔法少女まどか☆マギ カ/魔法少女小圓(2011)A very successful TV animeManga: Tankōbon with the same name;Sales: over 1.6 million in Japan (until )
22 Characteristics of Japanese Manga- Mature Industry (9) Amount:Manga artists: over 3000 that are still working.Series now in run manga: Weekly Shōnen Jump: 20Weekly Shōnen Magazine: 26Weekly Shōnen Sunday:24……Those manga that have low popularity will face eliminationSales: Significant gaps between popular and unpopular manga.Dragon Ball /龍珠( ) has the largest sales 350 million copies.
23 Characteristics of Japanese Manga- Mature Industry (10) Subcultures:Dōjinshi(同人志) & Comic Market:Dōjinshi: work of amateurs re-creation of popular MangaComic Market: The largest Dōjinshi market hold in every summer and winter;
24 Characteristics of Japanese Manga- Mature Industry (11) Crowds in Comic Market
25 Characteristics of Japanese Manga- Violence content(1) Existed in many types of MangaOften considered as Nekketsu (热血)Be criticized negative influence on adolescents
26 Characteristics of Japanese Manga- Violence content(2) Slam Dunk episode 61Naruto episode 473
27 Characteristics of Japanese Manga- Moe(1) Moe (萌え/萌)： Pseudo-love for certain fictional characters in ACG.Typical Moe Property:Physical characteristics: Loli(ロリ/蘿莉); ahoge（アホ毛/呆毛）；Bunches (ツインテール/双马尾)Character: Tsundere(ツンデレ/傲嬌); Tennen Boke(天然ボケ/天 然呆);Saimoe: Anime Saimoe Tournament, organized by members of 2channel (a famous forum in Japan)every year since
28 Characteristics of Japanese Manga- Moe(2) First Saimoe champion(2002): Sakura Kinomoto (From Manga “Cardcaptor Sakura” )
30 Influence on Hong Kong Comics(1) Hong Kong Comics authorsWong Yuk-long(黃玉郎)Regarded as the "Godfatherof Hong Kong comics“Famous works:Oriental Heroes (龍虎門)Drunken Master (醉拳)
31 Influence on Hong Kong Comics(2) 龍虎門 (共1282期)醉拳（共1099期）
32 Influence on Hong Kong Comics (3) Early works are influenced by Japanese MangaLittle Rascals /小流氓 （ ）A story about seven Kung-Fu boys who fight for lower-class people in Hong KongReferring to Japanese Manga Wild 7/ワイルド7/七金 剛 （ ）by 望月三起也Wild 7 a story about seven policemen against evil
38 Ways of Influences on People Mind Japanese comics may be a medium to invoke different emotionsThey can be used to get the messages across by content or the storyReaders may imagine themselves throwing into the role of the characters
39 Readers may feel enthusiastic InspirationalCharacters in some Japanese comics are invincible, or the goodies always win over the baddiesReaders may feel enthusiastic
40 Readers’ psychological development. Feelings of positive attitude towards life, where there’s a will there’s a way, life is full of hope…Readers’ psychological development.Inspirational
41 Transmitting Positive messages Japanese comics thought provokingThey can learn from the story of the comics and get the positive messages behindWhen they imitate the characters, like heroes, they may learn the importance of taking responsibilities, give others a helping hand…
42 ExampleLike Naruto, the main character was an ill-starred boy and was different from other children.He was once discriminated and feared by othersFinally he could become success and show that he is worthy of love and affection.
43 Results of Questionnaires Funny, HilariousEmpatheticEncouraging81%45%32%Large proportion of interviewees think that Japanese Comics are interesting and can make them laugh.45% of them feels empatheticOver one-third of them think they are encouraging
44 Stimulate creativityJapanese Comics can boost readers’ creativity since the world in the story is free and all physical rules can be broken.Like One Piece’s large pirate world and the marvelous abilities of the characters. (Devil Fruit Power)
45 But how useful are the effects? Stimulate creativityBut how useful are the effects?The creativity can be applied to reality.For example, Nissan Chief Creative Officer Shiro Nakamura said that the angular lines and high-tech vents of the GT-R were inspired by the Japanese manga series Gundam.
46 Negative EmotionsSome Japanese comics cause negative feelings among readers.They may feel desperate or sad after reading the manga that depict death or some unfair or poor things that are close to the real life.Some may even develop an evil or heretical mindset.
47 Cause frustrationsIn some Japanese manga, Heroes can not always win, or they have to sacrifice their family, friends, lives,…etcThese kinds of story would cause frustrations to readers: What is right? What is wrong?
48 ExampleDeath Note In the manga, the main character kills criminals that escape from law using a death note. Readers may receive the message that killing or hurting those bad guys would be the effective way to punish them.
49 ViolenceIn many Manga like Dragon ball, the main character always win by fighting.Readers may think that violence is an effective tool to solve conflicts, control the situation that they want, relief their bad emotions…Therefore, they may develop a violent temper.
50 Problems are still unsolved. Away from realitySome readers may live in fantasy world because rules can be broken, full of freedom, they can do what they want in the imaginary world.However, all of us cannot escape from reality and life always has its ups and downsProblems are still unsolved.
51 Erotic fantasyThere are many pornographic Japanese comics (Known as H-comic).Readers may get excitements after reading those comics.They may imagine to have sex with an unreal partners or in an unreal conditions or places.
52 Erotic fantasy Readers may always fall into sexual fantasy. This may affect the relationship between readers and the opposite sex. It is hard to socialize when they keep the sexual drive on their mind.Some may even commit sexual crimes.
53 Results of Questionnaires Erotic fantasyAway from realityNegative EmotionsViolent impulses15%12%7%The above results show that Japanese Comics do have negative effects on readers’ minds, although the proportion is not very high.
55 Reading Japanese Comics Bad ImpressionsReading Japanese ComicsOtakuJapanese comics are mainly composed of girls - being obsessed with them may be treated as Otaku.
56 Stereotype on readersReaders of Japanese Manga would have difficulties in communicating with others, are far away from public,… etc.They are having social disorders and so I won’t make friends with them
57 Hong Kong Comics Comparisons The content of Hong Kong comics are mostly about gangsters or WuXiaReading those comics will not give the bad impressions of Otaku
58 Influence on People Life … Living with (by?) MangaJimmy, Sinn Lok Tsun / 冼樂浚 CSCI/3
59 Influence on People Life – Overview Reading Manga as major leisure activity for Hong Kong peopleEasily affect people activity in their lifeHow Manga influence our life?AspectsHobbyCultural ExchangeManga: Japanese comics, come from Japanese 漫画
60 Hobby – Related Products (1) Manga and their related products become hobbySome Manga are aimed at promoting toysMini 4WD: Bakusō Kyōdai Let‘s & Go!! (爆走兄弟 レッツ&ゴー!! / 四驅兄弟)Beyblade (爆転シュート ベイブレード / 爆旋陀 螺)
61 Hobby – Related Products (2) Manga promoting card games: Yu-Gi-Oh! (遊戯王)Still many people playingEven manga original finishedOfficial card game center in HKDragon Center (西九龍中心)Model: Gundam (ガンダム)Assembling modelsTechnical and fine workEnjoy the processHobby as collectorCollecting cards, models, figures
62 Hobby – Sports and Games (1) Popular Manga genreSportsFootballCaptain Tsubasa (キャプテン翼 / 足球小將)BasketballSlam Dunk (スラムダンク / 男兒當入樽)Kuroko’s Basketball (黒子のバスケ / 幻影籃球王 / 黑子的籃 球)American FootballEyeshield 21 (アイシールド21 / EYE SHIELD 21 高速達陣)Chess / GamesGoMahjongEyeshield nd down
63 Hobby – Sports and Games (2) Material and rules based on rules in real worldGiving basic idea of rules and gameplayGiving brief image on the sports or gamesMake people interested on itWidely spread sports and games
64 Questionnaire ResultQuestion: Have you joined any sport activity because of reading sports manga?Question: 你有沒有因日本體育漫畫而接觸運動?22% of respondents play / join sport activity after reading sports mangaHaving effect
65 Cultural Exchange – Manga Materials (1) Manga materials are strongly related to JapanLife in JapanSchoolFestivalHinamatsuri (雛祭り / 女兒節) is a common storyRecent news and hot topics in JapanCoherence with Japanese, but not with Hong Kong readersHave to learn more in order to enjoy絕望先生 第二十二卷 53 頁Ring a ding dong:NTT Docomo 2010 CM日本環球小姐代表的服裝:高知縣公所的漫畫課銀魂 第三十六卷 57 頁
66 Cultural Exchange – Manga Materials (2) 銀魂 第三卷 49 頁Manga materials are strongly related to JapanUse of Japanese (language)First hand manga are in JapanesePeople want to read the latest issueEven with translation, it is still difficult to understandMore on どんだけ西日本方言2007 IKKOWikipedia:Video: <- 伏 :o)銀魂 第十八卷 117 頁銀魂 第二十卷 62 頁
67 Cultural Exchange – Influences (1) People interested in Japanese cultureLearn from internetHaving similar experienceMealSushiTeppanyaki 鉄板焼Yakiniku 焼肉Mobile PhonesSonySharpTravelling to Japan
68 Cultural Exchange – Influences (2) People interested in Japanese cultureLearning Japanese LanguageMore Japanese-learning center and school launched in Hong KongJapanese become popular in Hong KongRe-importation of Chinese words達人 – たつじん放題 – ほうだい激安 – げきやす
69 Cultural Re-importation As result of culture evolutionCulture evolve in other country, then re-import to its originExampleRomance of the Three Kingdoms (三國) re- import from Japan as Sangokushi (三國志)Changing background and character settingsSome Chinese thought Sangokushi story was based on Japan, or was the truth story happened in China
70 Cultural Exchange – Influences (3) Manga re-import Chinese culture from JapanThese culture, originally, cannot attract peopleCooperating with story and character setting, the Manga become interestingPeople know the culture through the Manga, and become popular
71 Cultural Exchange – Influences (4) Manga re-import culture of China from JapanGo (圍棋)Heat of Hikaru no Go (ヒカルの碁 / 棋魂 / 棋靈王)Much more teenagers play Go as hobbyJapanese MahjongSaki (咲–Saki–) and The Legend of KoizumiVariation of MahjongPeople learn Japanese mahjongSome of them even do not know how to play Chinese mahjong棋魂 14 卷Achiga ch9 p07棋魂完全版 1 卷咲–Saki– 阿知賀編 第 9 局 P. 07
72 Culture – Example (1) The Legend of Koizumi (ムダヅモ無き改革 / 小泉麻雀傳說) FeaturesCharacters based on politicians from Japan, America, China etcCharacters play Japanese mahjong, with fantastic skills, as diplomatic meansMaking Junichiro Koizumi (小泉純一郎) as legendaryBeats up politicians from other countries
73 Culture – Example (2) The Legend of Koizumi (ムダヅモ無き改革 / 小泉麻雀傳說) AnalysisStory model Koizumi as legendaryMatching some Japanese viewHong Kong people have to learn more about background and political issue in order to enjoy the schoolPlaying Japanese mahjongAttracting Hong Kong people learning Japanese mahjongCultural Re-importation
74 Questionnaire ResultQuestion: Did reading Japanese manga make you try to understand Japanese culture?Question: 你有否因為日本漫畫而主動了解日本文化?54% of respondents tried learning or understanding Japanese culture after reading Japanese manga
75 Influence on People Life – Summary HobbyRelated products and toysSports and Games theme of MangaCultural ExchangeJapanese culture expanding in Hong KongCultural Re-importation
76 Social Influence Xia Zhi Han Some obscene manga makes youths have sexual fantasy.So how to reduce the negative effect of obscene manga?Use laws to limit the propagation of obscene manga.Xia Zhi Han
77 Tokyo Metropolitan Ordinance Regarding the Healthy Development of Youths Original Ordinance created in 1964.2.Many manga use legal loopholes to get rid of punishments.1. Obscene comics increases.In December 2010, Tokyo Metropolitan Assembly(東京都議会)passed the amendment to the definition of “harmful publications”.
78 The amendment is mainly enlarge the range of sexual matters. It covers more level to give local government authority to enforce norms in disguise.
79 “any manga, animation, or pictures (but not including real life pictures or footage) that features either sexual or pseudo sexual acts that would be illegal in real life, or sexual or pseudo sexual acts between close relatives whose marriage would be illegal, where such depictions and / or presentations unjustifiably glorify or exaggerate the activity.“——Tokyo Metropolitan Ordinance Regarding the Healthy Development of Youths(东京都青少年健全育成条例)
80 Relative provisions in HK The same situation of obscene comics also exists in HK. But the relative provisions have less restraining force.The Obscene Articles Tribunal(淫褻物品審裁處) is one of Hong Kong Judiciaries.Control of Obscene and Indecent Articles Ordinance (淫亵及不雅物品管制条例)OAT doesn’t define clear limit on Youth’s comics.
81 “Anything obscene should not be released to any person, shall be guilty of obscene. “ “And anything indecent to young people should not be released, shall be guilty of indecent.”“’Obscene’ (obscenity) and ‘indecent’ (indecency), including violence, depravity and repulsiveness.”
83 Propagation of Japanese manga in Hong Kong Xia Zhi Han
84 Publish and Propagation From the questionnaire, the most popular legal propagation methods are:From Publish company (Publishing comic books)Hong Kong comic renting stores
85 Three main publisher in Hong Kong Jade Dynasty (玉皇朝集团有限公司)Founder：Wong Jan-lung（黄玉郎）1993Culturecom Holdings Ltd.（文化传信有限公司）Founder: Wong Jan-lung（黄玉郎）1979Old name: Jademan (Holdings) Ltd.龙虎门 ,中华英雄 , Doraemon …Jonesky Limited(天下出版有限公司)Founder: Ma Wing Shing (马荣成） 1989风云，Sailormoon ，One Piece …
86 Importing Japanese manga brought tremendous benefits to publisher companies. 1992, Culturecom bought the copyright of one Japanese manga’s publication of the Chinese version.Publishers also promote the popularity of Manga in Hong KongA win-win situation
87 Publish the Hong Kong local comics Promote the propagation of Hong Kong comicsIncrease the readers of Hong Kong comicsPerfect the Hong Kong comic industry chainPublishersAuthorsReaders
88 Hong Kong comic renting stores Yau Ma Tei, Mong Kok have many renting stores
89 The popularity of the comic rental bookstore is also driven by the Japanese cartoon craze. Advantages:Lots of resourcesUpdate fastCheapA good propogation of local comicsA good place for comic fans to communicate
90 Precarious future Problem of intellectual property and copyright Comic renting Stores in Hong Kong cannot afford it. So the number of renting stores are decreasing.
95 Draw large audiences ticket office worldwide AreaAmericaHong KongTai WanJapanKoreaTicket office ofCity hunter2.2 million USA dollar3.01 million HK dollar11.8millionUSADollar600MillionJPYuan810thousand people
96 CosplayCosplay, short for “costume play”, is a type of performance art in which participants use costumes and accessories to represent a specific character or idea.Cosplay does not origin from Japan, but with the increasing popularity of Manga, cosplay are more generally used for performing characters in Manga.Xia Zhi Han
98 cosplayCosplay first appeared in a culture exhibition in Hong Kong in One Hong Kong Dōjinshi group rent a place to sell original comics. Members dressed up as the characters in Legend of the Galactic Heroes to attract customers.In 1997, the first official cosplay activity “漫人 墟” occurs.
99 Now, there are about ten cosplay activities every year Now, there are about ten cosplay activities every year. And mainly are host by different university.CUHK have cosplay activity on September called “The endless vow”
100 Conclusion and prediction Society: Government makes more ordinances to limit the propagation of comics. The negative influence of obscene comics will be reduced and create a good environment for youths.Propagation: Japanese manga provides financial supports for the publishers. With a good comic industry chain, Hong Kong comics can develop well. And the renting stores have a hard time because of the copyright problem. Maybe we will lose a cheap method to read manga.Movies based on Japanese manga can get a good ticket office and be popular. But the risk is also big, since it is hard to make the movie totally similar to the original manga and comic readers may give critical comments on the adaptions.
101 Conclusion Japanese Manga @ Hong Kong … Jimmy, Sinn Lok Tsun / 冼樂浚 CSCI/3
102 Conclusion Influence of Manga in Hong Kong from multiple aspects On Hong Kong Comics IndustryOn people MindOn people LifeOn Hong Kong SocietyOn Publishing and PropagatingOn Hong Kong filmsQuestionnaire result verify the influence
103 Dealing with influences Dealing with negative influences on yourselfKeeping positive mindsetSelf-control of greed and desireSeparating reality and manga worldManga cannot let you escape from realityThink critically on Manga materialDominance of Manga in Hong KongCan we preserve Hong Kong comics?
104 Hong Kong comics industry … What can Hong Kong comics do … ?Broaden genre / theme of comicsOther than fighting comicsPreserving own featuresDifferentiate from Japanese MangaExampleMartial arts