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Influence of Manga in Hong Kong

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1 Influence of Manga in Hong Kong
United College Final Year Project Simon Sun Bo 孫博- Jimmy, Sinn Lok Tsun 冼樂浚 Robbie Tang Wing Kuen 鄧永權 Sara Xia Zhihan 夏芷涵 United College Final Year Project Group 167 Supervisor: Prof. Wong King Young

2 Background From 1980s to present, Japanese comics show a huge increase in popularity and influences in Asia. Growth In Hong Kong, Japanese comics have become one of the most popular forms of entertainment. Entertainment

3 This can be shown by the penetration of Japanese cultures, the Animation, Comics & Games Expo, comic café,…..etc. Source: ACGHK 2012 info

4 Introduction Readers (Individual) Hong Kong as a whole
Are those influences all good to readers? Can they inculcate positive messages into adolescents’ minds? Hong Kong as a whole To investigate whether Japanese comics have influences on other industries or society of Hong Kong.

5 Introduction This is the goal of our project: To identify the influences of Japanese manga in Hong Kong and investigate their effects. Frame of our work: Identify Characteristics Propose Influences Collect Data or Information Verify our proposal by results Draw Conclusions

6 Outline Background Research Methodology
Characteristics of Japanese Manga Influence on Hong Kong Hong Kong comic industry People Mind People Life Society Propagation and Publisher Hong Kong Film Industry Conclusion

7 Methodology Sun Bo 孫博 IEE/4

8 Methodology(1) Overview
To study the influence that Japanese Manga bring to Hong Kong society ,the following research methods are used: Reading paper Reading Japanese Manga & Hong Kong comics Questionnaire

9 Methodology(2) Reading Paper
The following works are read in order to have a good understanding of Manga and its propagation in Hong Kong. Ng Wai-ming (2002). The Impact of Japanese Comics and Animation in Asia. Journal of Japanese Trade & Industry, July / August 2002, John A. Lent (1999). Local Comic Books and the Curse of Manga in Hong Kong, South Korea and Taiwan. Asian Journal of Communication, 9(1), doi: /

10 Methodology(3) Reading Manga and Hong Kong comics
In order to have a specific view on type, content, style of Jap Manga and Hong Kong comics: Jap Manga Slam dunk /男儿当入樽 ( ), 井上雄彥 Wild 7 / 七金剛 ( ),望月三起也 Fullmetal Alchemist /鋼の錬金術師/鋼之煉金術師 ( ), 荒川弘 Naruto (1999-),岸本齊史 One Piece (1997-),尾田栄一郎 Hong Kong comics 中華英雄( ),馬榮成 風雲(1989-),馬榮成 龍虎門( ),黃玉郎

11 Methodology(4) Questionnaire
To study how Jap comic influence on Hong Kong citizens 21 questions in total Periods: 26/10/ /10/2012 Collecting samples: 225

12 Characteristics of Japanese Manga
Sun Bo 孫博 IEE/4

13 Characteristics of Japanese Manga
Industry mature Genre Author Working Style Propagation Method Anime Amount Subculture Violence Content Moe/萌

14 Characteristics of Japanese Manga- Mature Industry (1)
Genre : Intended readers: Shonen manga (少年漫畫); Shoujo manga (少女漫畫); Seinen manga (青年漫畫); Josei manga (女性漫畫); Hentai manga (成人漫畫)…

15 Characteristics of Japanese Manga- Mature Industry (2)
Genre: Themes : Campus (Cardcaptor Sakura/カードキャプターさくら/百變小櫻) Sports (Slam Dunk/男兒當入樽/灌籃高手) Adventure (One Piece/海賊王) Fantasy (Fullmetal Alchemist/鋼之煉金術師) Comedy (Gin Tama/銀魂) History (Rurouni Kenshin/l浪客劍心 )… NEED TO ADD CHINESE & JAPANESE EXPLANSION

16 Characteristics of Japanese Manga- Mature Industry (3)
Slam Dunk One Piece Fullmetal Alchemist

17 Characteristics of Japanese Manga- Mature Industry (4)
Authors’ Working Style: Story Set Rough Draft  First Draft Press Censorship Tracing  Applying Screentones Publishing Comics artist always need at least two assistants. Facing fierce competition (Especially for weekly manga artists)

18 Characteristics of Japanese Manga- Mature Industry (5)
Propagation Method Weekly magazines: Weekly Shōnen Jump(少年週刊 Jump); Weekly Shōnen Magazine(少年週刊 Magazine); …… Tankōbon(單行本): a sum-up version of manga of one artist; E-edition: COMIC SEED! (双葉社, ,28); Piracy: Spreading into overseas (China,U.S,Europe); Anime: Covered in following slides;

19 Characteristics of Japanese Manga- Mature Industry (6)
Anime & Manga: Manga  Anime: Royalty to origins / Adapted the origins Fullmetal Alchemist: Brotherhood (2009) vs Fullmetal Alchemist (2003) Akiyuki Shinbo(新房昭之): Crushing the origins(“原作粉碎機”): Dance In The Vampire Bund/ダンス イン ザ ヴァンパイアバンド/吸血鬼 同盟(2010) Promoting manga popularity

20 Characteristics of Japanese Manga- Mature Industry (7)
Fullmetal Alchemist (2003) Fullmetal Alchemist: Brotherhood (2009) Fullmetal Alchemist (Manga)

21 Characteristics of Japanese Manga- Mature Industry (8)
Anime & Manga: Anime  Manga: often adapted from famous Anime. Puella Magi Madoka Magica /魔法少女まどか☆マギ カ/魔法少女小圓(2011) A very successful TV anime Manga: Tankōbon with the same name; Sales: over 1.6 million in Japan (until )

22 Characteristics of Japanese Manga- Mature Industry (9)
Amount: Manga artists: over 3000 that are still working. Series now in run manga: Weekly Shōnen Jump: 20 Weekly Shōnen Magazine: 26 Weekly Shōnen Sunday:24…… Those manga that have low popularity will face elimination Sales: Significant gaps between popular and unpopular manga. Dragon Ball /龍珠( ) has the largest sales  350 million copies.

23 Characteristics of Japanese Manga- Mature Industry (10)
Subcultures: Dōjinshi(同人志) & Comic Market: Dōjinshi: work of amateurs re-creation of popular Manga Comic Market: The largest Dōjinshi market hold in every summer and winter;

24 Characteristics of Japanese Manga- Mature Industry (11)
Crowds in Comic Market

25 Characteristics of Japanese Manga- Violence content(1)
Existed in many types of Manga Often considered as Nekketsu (热血) Be criticized negative influence on adolescents

26 Characteristics of Japanese Manga- Violence content(2)
Slam Dunk episode 61 Naruto episode 473

27 Characteristics of Japanese Manga- Moe(1)
Moe (萌え/萌): Pseudo-love for certain fictional characters in ACG. Typical Moe Property: Physical characteristics: Loli(ロリ/蘿莉); ahoge(アホ毛/ 呆毛);Bunches (ツインテール/双马尾) Character: Tsundere(ツンデレ/傲嬌); Tennen Boke(天然ボケ/天 然呆); Saimoe: Anime Saimoe Tournament, organized by members of 2channel (a famous forum in Japan)every year since

28 Characteristics of Japanese Manga- Moe(2)
First Saimoe champion(2002): Sakura Kinomoto (From Manga “Cardcaptor Sakura” )

29 Influence on Hong Kong Comics
Sun Bo 孫博 IEE/4

30 Influence on Hong Kong Comics(1)
Hong Kong Comics authors Wong Yuk-long(黃玉郎) Regarded as the "Godfather of Hong Kong comics“ Famous works: Oriental Heroes (龍虎門) Drunken Master (醉拳)

31 Influence on Hong Kong Comics(2)
龍虎門 (共1282期) 醉拳(共1099期)

32 Influence on Hong Kong Comics (3)
Early works are influenced by Japanese Manga Little Rascals /小流氓 ( ) A story about seven Kung-Fu boys who fight for lower-class people in Hong Kong Referring to Japanese Manga Wild 7/ワイルド7/七金 剛 ( )by 望月三起也 Wild 7  a story about seven policemen against evil

33 Influence on Hong Kong Comics(4)

34 Influence on Hong Kong Comics(5)
Hong Kong Comics authors Ma Wing-shing/馬榮成 Famous Work: Chinese Hero/中華英雄 ( ) Learn from manga artists of the same period Ryoichi Ikegami /池上 遼一

35 Influence on Hong Kong Comics(6)
Hong Kong comics style Publication: American Japanese Colorful, weekly magazine  Monochrome,Tankōbon/ 單行本 Around 40 pages per issue  about 200 pages per Tankōbon

36 Influence on Hong Kong Comics(7)
Theme: Absorb fighting manga,keeping local features  Kung-Fu (Chinese Hero/中華英雄)--馬榮成    Martial-Arts (Fung Wan/風雲) –馬榮成  Underworld (Young and Dangerous/古惑仔) –牛 佬

37 Influences on Readers’ Minds
Positive & Negative Tang Wing Kuen/ 鄧永權 STAT/3

38 Ways of Influences on People Mind
Japanese comics may be a medium to invoke different emotions They can be used to get the messages across by content or the story Readers may imagine themselves throwing into the role of the characters

39 Readers may feel enthusiastic
Inspirational Characters in some Japanese comics are invincible, or the goodies always win over the baddies Readers may feel enthusiastic

40 Readers’ psychological development.
Feelings of positive attitude towards life, where there’s a will there’s a way, life is full of hope… Readers’ psychological development. Inspirational

41 Transmitting Positive messages
Japanese comics thought provoking They can learn from the story of the comics and get the positive messages behind When they imitate the characters, like heroes, they may learn the importance of taking responsibilities, give others a helping hand…

42 Example Like Naruto, the main character was an ill-starred boy and was different from other children. He was once discriminated and feared by others Finally he could become success and show that he is worthy of love and affection.

43 Results of Questionnaires
Funny, Hilarious Empathetic Encouraging 81% 45% 32% Large proportion of interviewees think that Japanese Comics are interesting and can make them laugh. 45% of them feels empathetic Over one-third of them think they are encouraging

44 Stimulate creativity Japanese Comics can boost readers’ creativity since the world in the story is free and all physical rules can be broken. Like One Piece’s large pirate world and the marvelous abilities of the characters. (Devil Fruit Power)

45 But how useful are the effects?
Stimulate creativity But how useful are the effects? The creativity can be applied to reality. For example, Nissan Chief Creative Officer Shiro Nakamura said that the angular lines and high-tech vents of the GT-R were inspired by the Japanese manga series Gundam.

46 Negative Emotions Some Japanese comics cause negative feelings among readers. They may feel desperate or sad after reading the manga that depict death or some unfair or poor things that are close to the real life. Some may even develop an evil or heretical mindset.

47 Cause frustrations In some Japanese manga, Heroes can not always win, or they have to sacrifice their family, friends, lives,…etc These kinds of story would cause frustrations to readers: What is right? What is wrong?

48 Example Death Note In the manga, the main character kills criminals that escape from law using a death note. Readers may receive the message that killing or hurting those bad guys would be the effective way to punish them.

49 Violence In many Manga like Dragon ball, the main character always win by fighting. Readers may think that violence is an effective tool to solve conflicts, control the situation that they want, relief their bad emotions… Therefore, they may develop a violent temper.

50 Problems are still unsolved.
Away from reality Some readers may live in fantasy world because rules can be broken, full of freedom, they can do what they want in the imaginary world. However, all of us cannot escape from reality and life always has its ups and downs Problems are still unsolved.

51 Erotic fantasy There are many pornographic Japanese comics (Known as H-comic). Readers may get excitements after reading those comics. They may imagine to have sex with an unreal partners or in an unreal conditions or places.

52 Erotic fantasy Readers may always fall into sexual fantasy.
This may affect the relationship between readers and the opposite sex. It is hard to socialize when they keep the sexual drive on their mind. Some may even commit sexual crimes.

53 Results of Questionnaires
Erotic fantasy Away from reality Negative Emotions Violent impulses 15% 12% 7% The above results show that Japanese Comics do have negative effects on readers’ minds, although the proportion is not very high.

54 Influence on Others’ minds

55 Reading Japanese Comics
Bad Impressions Reading Japanese Comics Otaku Japanese comics are mainly composed of girls - being obsessed with them may be treated as Otaku.

56 Stereotype on readers Readers of Japanese Manga would have difficulties in communicating with others, are far away from public,… etc. They are having social disorders and so I won’t make friends with them

57 Hong Kong Comics Comparisons
The content of Hong Kong comics are mostly about gangsters or WuXia Reading those comics will not give the bad impressions of Otaku

58 Influence on People Life
… Living with (by?) Manga Jimmy, Sinn Lok Tsun / 冼樂浚 CSCI/3

59 Influence on People Life – Overview
Reading Manga as major leisure activity for Hong Kong people Easily affect people activity in their life How Manga influence our life? Aspects Hobby Cultural Exchange Manga: Japanese comics, come from Japanese 漫画

60 Hobby – Related Products (1)
Manga and their related products become hobby Some Manga are aimed at promoting toys Mini 4WD: Bakusō Kyōdai Let‘s & Go!! (爆走兄弟 レッツ&ゴー!! / 四驅兄弟) Beyblade (爆転シュート ベイブレード / 爆旋陀 螺)

61 Hobby – Related Products (2)
Manga promoting card games: Yu-Gi-Oh! (遊戯王) Still many people playing Even manga original finished Official card game center in HK Dragon Center (西九龍中心) Model: Gundam (ガンダム) Assembling models Technical and fine work Enjoy the process Hobby as collector Collecting cards, models, figures

62 Hobby – Sports and Games (1)
Popular Manga genre Sports Football Captain Tsubasa (キャプテン翼 / 足球小將) Basketball Slam Dunk (スラムダンク / 男兒當入樽) Kuroko’s Basketball (黒子のバスケ / 幻影籃球王 / 黑子的籃 球) American Football Eyeshield 21 (アイシールド21 / EYE SHIELD 21 高速達陣) Chess / Games Go Mahjong Eyeshield nd down

63 Hobby – Sports and Games (2)
Material and rules based on rules in real world Giving basic idea of rules and gameplay Giving brief image on the sports or games Make people interested on it Widely spread sports and games

64 Questionnaire Result Question: Have you joined any sport activity because of reading sports manga? Question: 你有沒有因日本體育漫畫而接觸運動? 22% of respondents play / join sport activity after reading sports manga Having effect

65 Cultural Exchange – Manga Materials (1)
Manga materials are strongly related to Japan Life in Japan School Festival Hinamatsuri (雛祭り / 女兒節) is a common story Recent news and hot topics in Japan Coherence with Japanese, but not with Hong Kong readers Have to learn more in order to enjoy 絕望先生 第二十二卷 53 頁 Ring a ding dong: NTT Docomo 2010 CM 日本環球小姐代表的服裝: 高知縣公所的漫畫課 銀魂 第三十六卷 57 頁

66 Cultural Exchange – Manga Materials (2)
銀魂 第三卷 49 頁 Manga materials are strongly related to Japan Use of Japanese (language) First hand manga are in Japanese People want to read the latest issue Even with translation, it is still difficult to understand More on どんだけ 西日本方言 2007 IKKO Wikipedia: Video: <- 伏 :o) 銀魂 第十八卷 117 頁 銀魂 第二十卷 62 頁

67 Cultural Exchange – Influences (1)
People interested in Japanese culture Learn from internet Having similar experience Meal Sushi Teppanyaki 鉄板焼 Yakiniku 焼肉 Mobile Phones Sony Sharp Travelling to Japan

68 Cultural Exchange – Influences (2)
People interested in Japanese culture Learning Japanese Language More Japanese-learning center and school launched in Hong Kong Japanese become popular in Hong Kong Re-importation of Chinese words 達人 – たつじん 放題 – ほうだい 激安 – げきやす

69 Cultural Re-importation
As result of culture evolution Culture evolve in other country, then re-import to its origin Example Romance of the Three Kingdoms (三國) re- import from Japan as Sangokushi (三國志) Changing background and character settings Some Chinese thought Sangokushi story was based on Japan, or was the truth story happened in China

70 Cultural Exchange – Influences (3)
Manga re-import Chinese culture from Japan These culture, originally, cannot attract people Cooperating with story and character setting, the Manga become interesting People know the culture through the Manga, and become popular

71 Cultural Exchange – Influences (4)
Manga re-import culture of China from Japan Go (圍棋) Heat of Hikaru no Go (ヒカルの碁 / 棋魂 / 棋靈王) Much more teenagers play Go as hobby Japanese Mahjong Saki (咲–Saki–) and The Legend of Koizumi Variation of Mahjong People learn Japanese mahjong Some of them even do not know how to play Chinese mahjong 棋魂 14 卷 Achiga ch9 p07 棋魂完全版 1 卷 咲–Saki– 阿知賀編 第 9 局 P. 07

72 Culture – Example (1) The Legend of Koizumi (ムダヅモ無き改革 / 小泉麻雀傳說)
Features Characters based on politicians from Japan, America, China etc Characters play Japanese mahjong, with fantastic skills, as diplomatic means Making Junichiro Koizumi (小泉純一郎) as legendary Beats up politicians from other countries

73 Culture – Example (2) The Legend of Koizumi (ムダヅモ無き改革 / 小泉麻雀傳說)
Analysis Story model Koizumi as legendary Matching some Japanese view Hong Kong people have to learn more about background and political issue in order to enjoy the school Playing Japanese mahjong Attracting Hong Kong people learning Japanese mahjong Cultural Re-importation

74 Questionnaire Result Question: Did reading Japanese manga make you try to understand Japanese culture? Question: 你有否因為日本漫畫而主動了解日本文化? 54% of respondents tried learning or understanding Japanese culture after reading Japanese manga

75 Influence on People Life – Summary
Hobby Related products and toys Sports and Games theme of Manga Cultural Exchange Japanese culture expanding in Hong Kong Cultural Re-importation

76 Social Influence Xia Zhi Han
Some obscene manga makes youths have sexual fantasy. So how to reduce the negative effect of obscene manga? Use laws to limit the propagation of obscene manga. Xia Zhi Han

77 Tokyo Metropolitan Ordinance Regarding the Healthy Development of Youths
Original Ordinance created in 1964. 2.Many manga use legal loopholes to get rid of punishments. 1. Obscene comics increases. In December 2010, Tokyo Metropolitan Assembly(東京都議会)passed the amendment to the definition of “harmful publications”.

78 The amendment is mainly enlarge the range of sexual matters.
It covers more level to give local government authority to enforce norms in disguise.

79 “any manga, animation, or pictures (but not including real life pictures or footage) that features either sexual or pseudo sexual acts that would be illegal in real life, or sexual or pseudo sexual acts between close relatives whose marriage would be illegal, where such depictions and / or presentations unjustifiably glorify or exaggerate the activity.“ ——Tokyo Metropolitan Ordinance Regarding the Healthy Development of Youths (东京都青少年健全育成条例)

80 Relative provisions in HK
The same situation of obscene comics also exists in HK. But the relative provisions have less restraining force. The Obscene Articles Tribunal(淫褻物品審裁處) is one of Hong Kong Judiciaries. Control of Obscene and Indecent Articles Ordinance (淫亵及不雅物品管制条例) OAT doesn’t define clear limit on Youth’s comics.

81 “Anything obscene should not be released to any person, shall be guilty of obscene. “
“And anything indecent to young people should not be released, shall be guilty of indecent.” “’Obscene’ (obscenity) and ‘indecent’ (indecency), including violence, depravity and repulsiveness.”


83 Propagation of Japanese manga in Hong Kong
Xia Zhi Han

84 Publish and Propagation
From the questionnaire, the most popular legal propagation methods are: From Publish company (Publishing comic books) Hong Kong comic renting stores

85 Three main publisher in Hong Kong
Jade Dynasty (玉皇朝集团有限公司) Founder:Wong Jan-lung(黄玉郎)1993 Culturecom Holdings Ltd.(文化传信有限公司) Founder: Wong Jan-lung(黄玉郎)1979 Old name: Jademan (Holdings) Ltd. 龙虎门 ,中华英雄 , Doraemon … Jonesky Limited(天下出版有限公司) Founder: Ma Wing Shing (马荣成) 1989 风云,Sailormoon ,One Piece …

86 Importing Japanese manga brought tremendous benefits to publisher companies.
1992, Culturecom bought the copyright of one Japanese manga’s publication of the Chinese version. Publishers also promote the popularity of Manga in Hong Kong A win-win situation

87 Publish the Hong Kong local comics
Promote the propagation of Hong Kong comics Increase the readers of Hong Kong comics Perfect the Hong Kong comic industry chain Publishers Authors Readers

88 Hong Kong comic renting stores
Yau Ma Tei, Mong Kok have many renting stores

89 The popularity of the comic rental bookstore is also driven by the Japanese cartoon craze.
Advantages: Lots of resources Update fast Cheap A good propogation of local comics A good place for comic fans to communicate

90 Precarious future Problem of intellectual property and copyright
Comic renting Stores in Hong Kong cannot afford it. So the number of renting stores are decreasing.

91 Publish and Propagation

92 Films based on Manga Hong Kong makes many movies based on Japanese Manga Shot by Real actors: GTO (麻辣教师) City Hunter (城市猎人) Kindaichi Case Files (金田一少年的事件簿) Xia Zhi Han


94 City Hunter 1993

95 Draw large audiences ticket office worldwide
Area America Hong Kong Tai Wan Japan Korea Ticket office of City hunter 2.2 million USA dollar 3.01 million HK dollar 11.8 million USA Dollar 600 Million JP Yuan 810 thousand people

96 Cosplay Cosplay, short for “costume play”, is a type of performance art in which participants use costumes and accessories to represent a specific character or idea. Cosplay does not origin from Japan, but with the increasing popularity of Manga, cosplay are more generally used for performing characters in Manga. Xia Zhi Han


98 cosplay Cosplay first appeared in a culture exhibition in Hong Kong in One Hong Kong Dōjinshi group rent a place to sell original comics. Members dressed up as the characters in Legend of the Galactic Heroes to attract customers. In 1997, the first official cosplay activity “漫人 墟” occurs.

99 Now, there are about ten cosplay activities every year
Now, there are about ten cosplay activities every year. And mainly are host by different university. CUHK have cosplay activity on September called “The endless vow”

100 Conclusion and prediction
Society: Government makes more ordinances to limit the propagation of comics. The negative influence of obscene comics will be reduced and create a good environment for youths. Propagation: Japanese manga provides financial supports for the publishers. With a good comic industry chain, Hong Kong comics can develop well. And the renting stores have a hard time because of the copyright problem. Maybe we will lose a cheap method to read manga. Movies based on Japanese manga can get a good ticket office and be popular. But the risk is also big, since it is hard to make the movie totally similar to the original manga and comic readers may give critical comments on the adaptions.

101 Conclusion Japanese Manga @ Hong Kong  …
Jimmy, Sinn Lok Tsun / 冼樂浚 CSCI/3

102 Conclusion Influence of Manga in Hong Kong from multiple aspects
On Hong Kong Comics Industry On people Mind On people Life On Hong Kong Society On Publishing and Propagating On Hong Kong films Questionnaire result verify the influence

103 Dealing with influences
Dealing with negative influences on yourself Keeping positive mindset Self-control of greed and desire Separating reality and manga world Manga cannot let you escape from reality Think critically on Manga material Dominance of Manga in Hong Kong Can we preserve Hong Kong comics?

104 Hong Kong comics industry …
What can Hong Kong comics do … ? Broaden genre / theme of comics Other than fighting comics Preserving own features Differentiate from Japanese Manga Example Martial arts

105 Q & A Section Thank you =]

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