4Rivers, Deltas, and Plains Great RiversIndus River flows west and then south through Pakistan to the Arabian SeaGanges River drops down from the central Himalayas and flows eastward across northern India.Brahmaputra River winds its way east, then west and south through BangladeshThe Ganges and Brahmaputra meet and form a delta before entering the Bay of Bengal.
8Offshore Islands Sri Lanka The Maldives Lush tropical land Rugged mountains dominate the center – 8,000 feet in elevationThe MaldivesComprise an archipelago – island group of more than 1,200 small islands (200 are inhabited)Atoll – an island formed from a peak of a submerged volcano.
9Natural ResourcesGreat River systems bring alluvial soil (rich soil) down from the mountains. When rivers overflow their banks, they deposit this soil on alluvial plains – lands that are rich farmland.Result: Indo-Gangetic Plain is one of the most fertile farming regions in the world
10Natural Resources Water and Soil Forests Minerals Great river systems Fish: Mackerel, sardines, carp, and catfishForestsTimberRain forests produce hardwoodsDeforestation - problemMineralsIndia – 4th in coal productionIndia, Pakistan, Bangladesh – natural gas resourcesIndia – iron ore (leading exporter) used in steel industryIndia – mica, key component in electrical equipment – India has growing computer industrySri Lanka – sapphires and rubies
11Climate – Wet and Dry, Hot and Cold Half of the climate zones that exist on Earth can be found in South Asia!!!6 main climate zones (Tropical Wet, Tropical Wet and Dry, Desert, Semiarid, Humid subtropical, Highland)
13Climate Monsoons and Cyclones Monsoons – seasonal winds – Oct. through Feb. dry winds blow across South Asia from the northeastJune through September – winds blow in from the southwest, bringing moist ocean air and heavy rains
17Vegetation: Desert to Rain Forest Plat life in South Asia variesVegetation ZonesForested areas – tropical wet zones (western coast of Indian and southern Bangladesh), rain forestsHighland Zone – northern India, Nepal, and Bhutan – forests of pine, fir, and other evergreensHumid Subtropical – river valleys and foothillsDeforestation is a problem everyoneLess than 1/5 of India’s original forests remain
18Human-Environmental Interaction Ganges River – not only an important water resource, but also a sacred river to the Hindus (the religion of most Indians)Most well-known river and extremely important to human life in this region (Lifeblood of India)Flows 1,500 miles from its source in a Himalayan glacier to the Bay of BengalImportant for IndiansDrinking water, farming, and transportation
19A Sacred RiverAccording to Hindus, the Ganges is a sacred river that brings life to its people. The Hindus worship the river as a goddess, and they believe its water has healing powers.Sacred sites and temples line the banks of the GangesPilgrims come from all over the world to drink and bathe in its watersScatter ashes
22Varanasi One of the most sacred sites on the Ganges As sun rises, Hindu pilgrims enter the water for purification and prayerThey float baskets of flowers and burning candles on the waterDaily celebration of their faith in the Ganges and its sacred water.
23A Polluted River One of the most polluted rivers in the world Millions of gallons of raw sewage and industrial waste flow into the river everydayHuge problemAccording to Hindus, Ganges is too holy to be harmed by pollution