Presentation on theme: "Chapter 15: Exploration and Trade Section 1: Europe Looks Outward By: Vicious World History 1 st period."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 15: Exploration and Trade Section 1: Europe Looks Outward By: Vicious World History 1 st period
A. Growing Interest in the East Main idea – European interest in the East increased after travelers reached China in the 13 th century Click on picture
A. Growing Interest in the East Italian Traders Reach China – In about 1260, Niccolo and Maffeo Polo, two brothers from a merchant family in Venice, Italy, set out on a “Trading Trip” to the Crimea, on the western edge of the Mongol empire. – They were headed to the court of Kublai Khan in China, or Cathay as it was then known.Kublai Khan – The Polo brothers became friends with the Mongol leader Mongol leader
A. Growing Interest in the East Tales of the East – The Polos stayed in China for 16 or 17 years – After his return to Venice, Marco Polo’s notes became a book, “The Travels of Marco Polo.” – Europeans had an interest in Marco Polo’s books.
B. Looking for New Trade Routes Main idea – Europeans began searching for a direct trade route to the East
B. Looking for New Trade Routes High Prices for Eastern Goods – Trade in eastern goods was brisk during the 1300’sbrisk – Europeans’ demand for cinnamon, nutmegs, cloves,pepper and other spices from India and China was especially great. – Each time the goods changed hands, the prices rose.
B. Looking for New Trade Routes Dangerous land routes – In the late 1300’s the huge Mongol empire began to break apart. – The day in which the Mongol ruler could promise Westerners, such as the Polos’ a safe trip home were over – They looked upon Christians as nonbelievers.
C. Spreading Christianity Main Idea – An important goal of European explorers was to spread Christianity.
C. Spreading Christianity Missionaries Head East – The Pope sent monks to the East in order to learn more about the Mongol Empire and to spread Christianity. – Da Montecorvino stayed in China for more than 30 years. Da Montecorvino – Another active missionary was Oderic of Pordenone who traveled through out Asia.
C. Spreading Christianity Voyages with Several Purposes – When European explorers and conquerors began their sailing expeditions in the 15 th 16 th Centuries. – Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama stated plainly that he was searching for both “Christians and spices.” – European rulers wanted to spread Christianity through out Europe.
D. Sailing with New Technology Main Idea – Advances in technology helped make exploration possible.
D. Sailing with New Technology – Tools for Navigation By the 1300’s sailors created a magnetic compass for directions. More detailed charts and maps also gave sailors a better idea of where they were. New maps of previously uncharted territory were made.
D. Sailing with New Technology – Ships for Long Trips The long ships and the round ships were often used more during long Voyages. For long Voyages on the open sea, early Europeans explorers preferred a type of round ship known as a “Caravel” they were a triangular ship with triangular sails. This made it easier to sail any route in the sea and helped Maffeo and Niccolo.
Kublai Khan 1215—94, Mongol emperor, founder of the Yüan dynasty of China. From 1251 to 1259 he led military campaigns in S China
Mongol leader 1260 Mangu's brother, Kublai Khan, became the Mongol leader Venetian trader Marco Polo lived in the Mongol Empire
Brisk Brisk means to make or become brisk; liven (often fol. by up) quick and active; lively: brisk trading; a brisk walk sharp and stimulating: brisk weather; brisk wind (of liquors) effervescing vigorously: brisk cider. 4. abrupt; curt: I was surprised by her rather brisk tone.
Ad Montecorvino and Oderic of Pordenone Odoric of Pordenone (real name Odorico Mattiussi or Mattiuzzi) (c – 14 January 1331) was one of the chief travelers of the later Middle Ages. (1246, Montecorvino , Peking) was a Franciscan missionary, traveler and statesman, founder of the earliest Roman Catholic missions in India and China, and archbishop of Peking.
Chapter 15: Exploration and Trade Section 2: Portugal Lead The Way DD15 World History Period 1
A. Exploration Under Henry The Navigator Prince Henry the Navigator sent expeditions to explore the West African Coast.
A. Exploration Under Henry The Navigator A Sailing Study Center ◦Around 1419, Prince Henry set up a center for the study of navigation at Sagres, on the southwestern coast of Portugal. ◦Henry had many reasons for supporting exploration; he was curious about the world. ◦In addition to introducing others to Christianity, he wanted to use contact with other people to oppose the power of the Muslims.
A. Exploration Under Henry The Navigator Down The African Coast ◦In 1434, Portuguese explorer Gil Eanes was sent to find a route to Africa. ◦These expeditions explored every twist and turn of the coastline, naming bays, capes, and rivers as they went. ◦They traded for fish, sealskins, and seal oil, but further south there were more valuable commodities, including gold, ivory, pepper, and slaves.
After Bartolomeu Dias sailed around the southern tip of Africa, the Portuguese explorer Vasco Da Gama sailed around Africa to India.
Bartolomeu Dias Rounds Africa ◦From the Guinea Coast, the coastline of Africa stretched south endlessly. ◦In 1487, three Portuguese ships led by Bartolomeu Dias sailed down the west coast of Africa. ◦As Dias went south, the weather turned bad, and in the wind and rain Dias rounded the tip of Africa without knowing. ◦Dias’s crew persuaded him to turn back, additionally a lack of food, and a need for ship repairs forced Dias to return to Portugal.
Vasco da Gama Sails To India ◦In 1497, Vasco da Gama set sail with 170 sailors and 4 ships; he wanted to reach Calicut on the West Coast of India. ◦In the spring of 1498, da Gama crossed the Indian Ocean from East Africa to Calicut. ◦In1499, he returned with just 2 ships and 44 sailors. ◦The sailors had found their long-sought sea route to India.
First the Portuguese and then the English, Dutch, and French set up trading empires in the East.
The Portuguese Take Control ◦When the Portuguese returned to the Indian Ocean after Vasco da Gama’s expedition, they were ready to use force to take control of trade. ◦By 1513 only 15 years after da Gama reached Calicut, the Portuguese had destroyed the Arabs’ hold on trade in the Indian Ocean. ◦Over a period of about 40 years, they set up trading post throughout the region, in places such as Java, Timor, Sumatra, and Macao in China and Nagasaki in Japan.
Power Shifts In The East ◦In 1494, Spain and Portugal agreed to The Treaty of Tordesillas. ◦Other European countries wanted a share in Eastern trade. In the 1600s they traded in the region through special companies. ◦East India companies had the legal right given by the government to conduct trade between England and the East Indies. ◦For the Dutch, English, and French people, trade was a way they could gain more power.
Chapter 15: Exploration and Trade Section 3: China, Japan, and Foreign Trade
A. China and the Outside World Main Idea – During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, China had limited contact with foreigners
A. China and the Outside World The Ming Dynasty Rebuilds China – In the final years of the Mongol Empire, civil war broke out among the Chinese people.Mongol Empire – After year of fighting, a rebel leader named Hong Wu(which means great military power)captured Beijing from the Mongols and became emperor of China – The Ming Dynasty remained in power for almost 300 years
A. China and the Outside World Foreign Contacts Under the Ming – China expanded its power during the Ming Dynasty. Mongolia,Korea,and Southeast Asia became subjects to the emperor’s authority. – The Ming developed more contacts across the sea. The third emperor,Yongle,took unusual steps to encourage foreign contact. – In 1405,Yongle sent a fleet of ships to India and Southeast Asia. Zhen He was commander.
A. China and the Outside World Expansion and Trade During the Qing Dynasty – The Ming Dynasty slowly lost control of outlying regions in the 1500’s – By 1644,China turned to the Manchus for help. – The Manchus invaded China, overpowered the Ming government, and set up the Qing Dynasty, which stayed in power until 1912.
B. Japan Shuts a Door Europeans Arrive in Japan – During the 1500’s Nobunaga Oda, a powerful daimyo wanted to unite Japan and be its leader. – Nobunaga was a fierce warrior. Soon half of Japan was under his control. – After Nobunaga was killed, Hideyoshi Toyotomi, one of his generals, completed his work of uniting Japan. Hideyoshi was helped by another daimyo, Ieyasu Tokugawa.
B Japan Shuts a Door The Tokugawa Send Foreigners Away – In 1603, the Tokugawa family came into power and ruled for more than 250 years. – In the first years, the Tokugawa worked to bring peace and set up a new government system. Ieyasu Tokugawa was the first Tokugawa shogun. – The Tokugawa made rule hereditary, so that it passed from one member of the family to another.
Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire was an empire from the 13 th and 14 th century spanning from Eastern Europe across Asia.