Presentation on theme: "The American Revolution 1775-1783. Lexington and Concord April 9, 1775 Paul Revere warns the minutemen to be prepared by making his famous midnight ride."— Presentation transcript:
Lexington and Concord April 9, 1775 Paul Revere warns the minutemen to be prepared by making his famous midnight ride. When the British arrive at Lexington as they are heading to Concord to steal the weapons stored there, the minutemen are waiting. Fighting begins, marking the Beginning of the American Revolution, or the “shot heard round the world”
Battle of Bunker/Breeds Hill The Continental Army stationed themselves on Breeds Hill overlooking Boston and engaged the British in a fierce battle. Although the Continental Army eventually had to retreat after running out of ammunition, this was a sad victory for the British because they had lost so many men.
Outcome Bunker Hill (actually started on Breeds Hill)showed the British that the Continental Army was a strong force that would not be so easily defeated
African Americans At first, George Washington did not want to allow blacks to serve in the Continental Army. Later, however, as it became more difficult to recruit soldiers, he changed his mind. The British, later in the war, having become desperate for soldiers, also recruited African American slaves, promising them Freedom when the British won the war.
Fort Ticonderoga In May 1775, Benedict Arnold and Ethan Allen decided to attack this poorly fortified fort in order to gain the weapons that were stored there.
Protecting the Hudson If the British were to move down the Hudson, they could effectively split New England in half, making it that much easier to defeat the Continental forces. However, Fort Ticonderoga, overlooking Lake George and Lake Champlain, held very strategic importance.
Fort Ticonderoga Cannons at the FortInside the Fort
The Battle of Valcour Island Valcour Island is located in Lake Champlain. A very important but little-known battle took place here between Benedict Arnold’s navy and the British fleet on October 11, 1776.
Although the Continental Army was unsuccessful, the battle had far-reaching benefits for the Continental Army. The gunboat Philadelphia Benedict Arnold’s small fleet engaged the British long enough for the British to decide not to move down the River into New York, but instead to retreat to winter quarters in Canada.
Valcour Island The winter of 1776-1777 was spent by Washington training his troops. As a result of this training, and their success at Trenton and Princeton his troops were able to successfully defeat the British at Saratoga in the Spring of 1777. This victory was a major turning point in the war.
Trenton and Princeton On Christmas night, 1776, George Washington had his men cross the icey Delaware River from his camp in Pennsylvania. They then marched 8 miles to Trenton, surprising the Hessian troops stationed there. They took over 900 prisoners. The Hessians were mercenaries hired by the British and had no real desire to fight.
Why is this important? At the end of 1776, most of George Washington’s army’s enlistments were set to expire. Washington would have very few soldiers left and no one was willing to re- enlist because the army was doing so poorly. However, after the success at Trenton and nearby Princeton, men were suddenly eager to re-enlist, saving Washington’s army.
Saratoga: A turning Point Thanks to Benedict Arnold, Washington was able to train his troops through the winter of 1776. As a result, When fighting begins in Saratoga, NY in the spring of 1777, Washington’s forces are able to defeat the British in what becomes one of the most important victories of the war. This proves to be a turning point, because the French and Spanish, watching from Europe, are finally convinced that it is possible the Continental Army can win. As a result, France joins the war on the side of the new United States and offers financial support as well as soldiers.
Saratoga (Cont’d) It is doubtful that the Continental Army will be successful without the aid of the French and Spanish. French aristocrat the Marquis de Lafayette and the Prussian, Baron von Steuben are instrumental in the American victory.
Monument to Benedict Arnold at Saratoga Hidden in the trees…Benedict Arnold would become a traitor later in the war. As a result many do not want to see him honored for his very important role early in the war.
Canada In November 1775, General Richard Montgomery captured Montreal while General Benedict Arnold and a very exhausted force of men attempted to invade Quebec. He was unsuccessful. A second attempt was made when Montgomery and his troops arrived but the attempt failed. Quebec was a stronghold surrounded by high bluffs. The only way to get into the city was to cross the very well guarded Plains of Abraham.
Valley Forge George Washington’s troops spent the winter of 1777-1778 at Valley Forge in Pennsylvania. They cut down thousands of trees to build small cabins housing sixteen men each, in two shifts of eight. Supplies were low, the men were cold, and diseases such as Cholera were rampant. Men who were sick were taken to hospitals, where many died. Washington, Lafayette, and von Steuben spent the winter drilling the soldiers in combat techniques.
The men built cabins to house them through the winter