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The Atlantic World 1492-1800 World History: Patterns of Interaction Chapter 20.

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Presentation on theme: "The Atlantic World 1492-1800 World History: Patterns of Interaction Chapter 20."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Atlantic World World History: Patterns of Interaction Chapter 20

2 ATB #16 What happened on this day (Oct. 4) in 1918?

3 Day 17 – Essential Questions  Why were the Spanish able to easily defeat the Aztec and Incan civilizations?  How were the French and English colonies in the Americas different in regards to land, economy, and relations with natives?  What was the main consequence of the French and Indian War?

4 Spain Builds an American Empire  Motivation – fierce competition for wealth in Europe [GOLD]  Christopher Columbus – Genoese captain hired by Ferdinand and Isabella to find a route to the Spice Islands by sailing west  Landed in the Caribbean Oct. 12, 1492  Called people “los indios” thinking he was in the Indies  Islands now called the West Indies  Miscalculated size of the earth  Claimed San Salvador for Spain  Returned to Spain 1493  monarchs financed 3 more trips  Intended to turn Caribbean lands into colonies – lands controlled by another nation

5 Other Explorers Sail West  1500 – Pedro Alvares Cabral claimed Brazil for Portugal  1501 – Amerigo Vespucci realizes land not part of Asia  1507 – German mapmaker names new continent “America”  1519 – Ferdinand Magellan sailed down coast of South America; tracks Strait of Magellan through southern tip  Sailed into Pacific Ocean – months without seeing land  Ran out of food  Eventually reached Philippines, where Magellan was killed by natives [CLAIMED for Spain 1521]  Crew, reduced by disease and starvation, continued west to home  18 of original 250 men reached Spain in 1522 – first persons to circumnavigate the world

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7 Spanish Conquests in Mexico  1519 – Hernán Cortés landed in Mexico  Conquistadors – Spanish conquerers brought guns, horses, and disease  Claimed lands for Spain  Sought gold and silver in Mexico, South America, and present- US  Encountered native Aztecs  Reached capital of Tenochtitlan  Montezuma II – Is Cortés a god?  Agreed to give gold  Killed many Aztecs starting spring 1520  Conquered Aztecs in 1521  Spanish weapons superior  Other native groups helped Cortés  Disease – measles, mumps, smallpox, typhus – no natural immunity

8 Spanish Conquests in Peru  1532 – Francisco Pizarro – Spanish conquerer reached Peru and conquered the Incan Empire  Met ruler Atahualpa near city Cajamarca  Spanish: 200 man army; Incan: 30,000 man army  Spanish ambushed, kidnapped Atahualpa  Received ransom of gold and silver  But, strangled Atahualpa anyway  Incans retreated  Captured capital Cuzco without a struggle in 1533  Other regions  Maya in the Yucatan & Guatemala

9 Spain’s Empire by mid-16 th Century  4 Viceroyalties  New Spain [Mexico]  New Granada [Ecuador]  Peru [Peru]  Rio de la Plata [Chile, Argentina]

10 Spanish Patterns of Conquest  Techniques used during the reconquista of Spain [conquering Muslims]  Live among them, imposing culture on them  Relations between Spanish and natives common  creation of mestizo population  Oppressed natives  Encomienda system – forced labor of natives in farms, ranches, or mines  Spoken against by Bartolome de las Casas – new laws forbade enslavement in Too far away to enforce…  Imposed culture  Close control on trade – esp. silver & gold  Sugar cane profitable  NEED WORKERS  Slaves from Africa by 1530s  # descendents from Africans outnumbered Europeans within a few generations  Laws prohibited trade with other nations  Spread authority of Catholic Church

11 Spanish Colonial Society  Blended Spanish, African, and Native American cultures  Native styles of buildings, food, use of canoes  Christanity and horses present  African cooking, farming, dance, song  Social Classes  Spanish-born Europeans  Creoles  Mestizos  Mulattos  Natives  Africans  Valued education – fulflilled by the Church

12 Pushing North  1540 – Empire stretched from Mexico to Peru  – Francisco Vásquez de Coronado led expedition through Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas  Little gold  Mostly priests settled to explore & colonize present-US  MANY Christian missionaries in Spanish Empire seeking converts  Evident today??

13 Effects of Spanish Conquistadors  Conquered millions of natives with guns and disease  Seized valuable goods esp. gold and silver  Send abroad to Philippines for trade  Made Spain very wealthy and powerful  Natives – split  Stop resisting, convert to Christianity  Still fight and protect culture  Changed patterns of global encounters  Map connected by sea routes for trade (not just land routes)

14 REMEMBER:  Conquered the Aztecs, Incas, and other natives easily with guns and disease  Empire spread from California to Chile in the Americas  Social hierarchy ranged from Africans (slaves) at the bottom to Spanish-born whites at the top  Placement of mixed people on the scale indicates the commonality of interbreeding that was still seen as less- acceptable  Economy focused on treasures (gold, silver) and later plantations (sugar, tobacco)

15 Portuguese in Brazil  Cabrel claimed land in 1500  Conquered Tupian Indians (disease)  Land grants began in 1530s – King would give land to nobles if they shared profits  Economy: not instant wealth from gold & silver, rather from plantation agriculture & cattle  Highest number slaves in the Americas  Some instant $ from sale of brazilwood  Blended culture similar to that of Spanish Empire

16 Europeans Settle North America  Must compete with Spain  Ignored Treaty of Torsedillas 1494  Find Northwest Passage – profitable trade route through North America instead of around it  Doesn’t exist… oops!

17 New France  New France – France’s colonial empire in North America based in present-day Quebec  Jacques Cartier reached coast of eastern Canada c.1534  Named St. Lawrence River  Named Montreal  1608 – Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec  1673 – Jesuit priest Marquette and trader Joliet explored Great Lakes & upper Mississippi River  C.1673 – Sieur de La Salle explored lower Mississippi – claimed entire river valley for France – named Louisiana for Louis XIV

18 New France’s Trading Empire  Sparsely populated lands  Only 65,000 by 1760  No desire to build towns or raise families  No Protestants allowed in NF – Louis XIV was Catholic  Some settlements and forts along rivers 1700s  Economy based on trade – furs, fishing  Climate not suited to agriculture  Dependent on natives to trade with; learn how to acquire goods themselves

19 REMEMBER:  Small population  Located in Canada, Ohio & Mississippi River Valleys  Fur traders  Worked with natives to survive

20 English Settlements  Reached Jamestown in 1607, chartered by King James  Settlers more interested in gold than crops – BIG fail  Mostly single men looking for $$  7/10 died in early years of hunger or disease  Initially dependent on natives of survival  Eventually good with tobacco cash crop farming  1620 – Pilgrims founded Plymouth, Massachusetts  Persecuted in England  Branch of Protestantism  C.1630 – Puritans sought religious freedom from Anglican Church and founded large colony at Massachusetts Bay  Numerous families enabled success

21 Varying English Colonies  Founded on:  Commercial Profit – New York, Virginia  Religious Havens – MA, PA, MD  Gifts from the King – Georgia, South Carolina  All spent early years working with natives, trying to survive  Learned to create wealth with resources & agriculture  Fishing, shipbuilding, timber  Rice, grains, tobacco  Slaves later outnumber Europeans in south

22 Government of British Colonies  Controlled by English monarch  Saw themselves as English – wanted same rights  Parliament passed laws affecting colonists  High degree of self-government for local issues What problems could arise from this system of government? Think about distance between places, representation, $$, alliegances, etc.

23 REMEMBER:  13 original colonies along east coast  Colonies established for different reasons  Each colony was unique – shipbuilding in New England; agriculture in the South; industry & trade in MidAtlantic  Economies varied  Initially relied on natives to survive  Large, increasing population compared to other colonial possessions

24 Dutch Found New Netherland  1609 – Henry Hudson sailed west for the Netherlands [was English]  Hudson Bay, Hudson River, Hudson Strait named for him  Dutch claimed regions along waterways  Built trading posts at Fort Orange (Albany) and on Manhattan Island  Dutch West India Company founded  1621 – colonize and expand fur trade  Lands called New Netherland  Struggled to gain settlers – allowed in more Dutch, Germans, French, Scandinavians

25 Colonizing the Caribbean  Also colonized in 1600s  Huge cotton & sugar plantations  Demanded large supply of labor  enslaved Africans

26 Struggle for North America  English ousted the Dutch without firing a shot in 1664  1.2M colonists by 1750 in 13 colonies  Wanted more land  French problem  1754 – dispute over lands in Ohio Valley led to French and Indian War  French & Algonquian VS English & Iroquois  Natives aligned to their advantage  Colonists, British, & Natives defeated French in 1763  Proclamation Line – set at boundary of the Appalachians to halt colonists from expanding westward

27 Colonists VS Natives  King Philip’s War 1675  Metacom, a native ruler, led an attack on colonial villages in MA  Following initial attacks, both sides massacred victims  Colonists defeated natives after a year of fierce fighting  Skirmishes, esp. along frontier, through 17 th century  Disease more destructive than weapons  Nearly whole tribes fell to smallpox, measles, etc.  Severe shortage of labor in colonies  Bring in African slaves

28 Journal Entry Imagine you are a European during the 1600s. Rank the order in which you would move to the Spanish Empire, New France, or the British Colonies [rank 1-3] and write a short paragraph for each saying why they ranked as such.

29 Big Ideas  The voyages of Columbus prompted the Spanish to establish colonies in the Americas to create wealth  The Spanish were able to easily conquer peoples of the Americas with guns, horses, and disease  New France had a small population of fur traders and eventually was evicted by the British  The British retained political control over numerous colonies based on different economies

30 ATB #17 Besides Africans and Natives in the Americas, what other groups have been enslaved throughout history?

31 Day 18 – Essential Questions  How did the spread of Islam affect the slave trade?  How did African slaves contribute to the development of the Americas?  How did capitalism and mercantilism impact the economies of Europe and the Americas?  How did the Columbian Exchange affect Europe, Africa, and the Americas?

32 Causes of African Slavery  Natives difficult  Offered resistance  Knew land better  Died from disease, warfare, treatment  Spread of Islam in 7 th century – increase in slavery & slave trade  Muslim rulers justified enslavement with Muslim belief that POWs could be sold as slaves  17M between to North Africa and SW Asia  Slaves usually had some legal rights & opportunity for social mobility  Could escape bondage in African societies, incl. marriage to family they served

33 Demand for Africans  Colonization & plantation farming  Advantages  Already exposed to European diseases  Experience in farming suitable to plantation work  Less likely to escape  Skin color – easier to catch them if they escape  Atlantic Slave Trade – buying and selling of Africans for work in the Americas  Spanish took early lead – plantations, silver mines  More than 40% slaves brought to Brazil in time – plantations

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35 Spread of Slavery  England dominated slave trade from 1609 – 1807 when it abolished slave trade  Transported nearly 1.7M to West Indies  400,000 sold to North American colonies  Steadily grew once there  2M by 1830  African Cooperation  Rulers & merchants willingly sold captives for profit along coastal port cities  Gold, guns, other goods  African Resistance  Some voiced opposition  King Affonso I

36 Forced Journey  Triangular Trade – transatlantic trading network between Europe, Africa, and the Americas  Manufactured goods from Europe to Africa  Slaves from Africa to the Americas  Crops & goods from Americas to Europe  Middle Passage – voyage that brought captured Africans to the West Indies  Bad conditions for both slaves and sailors  Disease, physical abuse  ~20% perished on each trip

37 Slavery in the Americas  Sold at auction  Work fields  Work in house  Developed new cultural heritage  Kept music, stories  Combined religions with Christianity – santaria  Thousands ran away  Laws to return to owner  Punishment upon return

38 Consequences of the Slave Trade  Africa  Cultures lost generations of fittest members  Families torn apart  Introduced guns to the continent  Americas  Labor contribution  Culture brought to Americas  Substantial African-American populations today

39 The Columbian Exchange  Columbian Exchange – global transfer of foods, plants, animals, diseases, and goods during colonization of the Americas  Most important – CORN & POTATOES from Americas  Inexpensive to grow  Nutritious  Steady part of diets worldwide  Boosted populations  Disease tragic on Native Americans

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41 Economic Revolution in Europe  New wealth + growth in overseas trade = New business & trade practices in Europe  Dramatically changed economic atmosphere of Europe  Capitalism – economic system based on private ownership and investment of resources for profit  Gov’t no longer sole owner of great wealth  Merchants wealthy from overseas trade with colonies  Profits enabled reinvesting even more  Inflation – increase in money supply  More money, more demand  Goods become scarce and valuable  Costs of goods rise

42 Economic Rev. Continued  Joint-stock Companies – investors buy shares of stock in a company  Need much $$ to start a colony or overseas venture  Great profits, great risks  Numerous investors – individuals paid smaller amounts  Founded Jamestown  Mercantilism – economic policy holding that a country’s power depended on its wealth  Get as wealthy as possible!  Obtain gold and silver  Establish favorable balance of trade – sell more than you buy  Goal to be self sufficient  Colonies provided silver, gold, food sources and served as a market for goods produced in Europe

43 Impact of Economic Revolution  Growth of towns  Rise of merchant class that controlled its own wealth  Population continued to live in rural areas  Majority of Europeans remained poor  Increased wealth of European nations  Mercantilism contributed to creation of national identity

44 Acrostic Poems / Alphabet Books / Songs  For the Columbian Exchange or Atlantic Slave Trade, choose ONE:  Write an acrostic poem with illustrations along the border  Create an illustrated alphabet book  Write a 2-3 minute song to the tune of a popular song  Be creative!!!  If you aren’t sure – ASK  You may brainstorm with friends, but everyone turns in their OWN assignment

45 Big Ideas  Europeans enslaved millions of Africans in their American colonies to meet growing labor needs  The colonization of America introduced new items into the Eastern and Western hemispheres  New global trade patterns gave rise to an economic revolution in Europe

46 ATB #18  Copy & react to this quote: “There are two things that have always haunted me: the brutality of the European traders and the stories I’ve heard about Africans selling other Africans into slavery.” Henry Louis Gates

47 Day 18 – Essential Questions  How did African slaves contribute to the development of the Americas?

48 ATB #18  Study Chapter 20 key terms for quiz!!!

49 Day 19 – Essential Questions  Why were explorers drawn to the Americas?  Why were the Spanish able to easily defeat the Aztec and Incan civilizations?  How were the French and English colonies in the Americas different in regards to land, economy, and relations with natives?  What was the main consequence of the French and Indian War?  How did the spread of Islam affect the slave trade?  How did African slaves contribute to the development of the Americas?  How did capitalism and mercantilism impact the economies of Europe and the Americas?  How did the Columbian Exchange affect Europe, Africa, and the Americas?

50 Big Ideas  The voyages of Columbus prompted the Spanish to establish colonies in the Americas to create wealth  The Spanish were able to easily conquer peoples of the Americas with guns, horses, and disease  New France had a small population of fur traders and eventually was evicted by the British  The British retained political control over numerous colonies based on different economies  Europeans enslaved millions of Africans in their American colonies to meet growing labor needs  The colonization of America introduced new items into the Eastern and Western hemispheres  New global trade patterns gave rise to an economic revolution in Europe


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