Presentation on theme: "The Atlantic World 1492-1800 World History: Patterns of Interaction Chapter 20."— Presentation transcript:
The Atlantic World World History: Patterns of Interaction Chapter 20
ATB #16 What happened on this day (Oct. 4) in 1918?
Day 17 – Essential Questions Why were the Spanish able to easily defeat the Aztec and Incan civilizations? How were the French and English colonies in the Americas different in regards to land, economy, and relations with natives? What was the main consequence of the French and Indian War?
Spain Builds an American Empire Motivation – fierce competition for wealth in Europe [GOLD] Christopher Columbus – Genoese captain hired by Ferdinand and Isabella to find a route to the Spice Islands by sailing west Landed in the Caribbean Oct. 12, 1492 Called people “los indios” thinking he was in the Indies Islands now called the West Indies Miscalculated size of the earth Claimed San Salvador for Spain Returned to Spain 1493 monarchs financed 3 more trips Intended to turn Caribbean lands into colonies – lands controlled by another nation
Other Explorers Sail West 1500 – Pedro Alvares Cabral claimed Brazil for Portugal 1501 – Amerigo Vespucci realizes land not part of Asia 1507 – German mapmaker names new continent “America” 1519 – Ferdinand Magellan sailed down coast of South America; tracks Strait of Magellan through southern tip Sailed into Pacific Ocean – months without seeing land Ran out of food Eventually reached Philippines, where Magellan was killed by natives [CLAIMED for Spain 1521] Crew, reduced by disease and starvation, continued west to home 18 of original 250 men reached Spain in 1522 – first persons to circumnavigate the world
Spanish Conquests in Mexico 1519 – Hernán Cortés landed in Mexico Conquistadors – Spanish conquerers brought guns, horses, and disease Claimed lands for Spain Sought gold and silver in Mexico, South America, and present- US Encountered native Aztecs Reached capital of Tenochtitlan Montezuma II – Is Cortés a god? Agreed to give gold Killed many Aztecs starting spring 1520 Conquered Aztecs in 1521 Spanish weapons superior Other native groups helped Cortés Disease – measles, mumps, smallpox, typhus – no natural immunity
Spanish Conquests in Peru 1532 – Francisco Pizarro – Spanish conquerer reached Peru and conquered the Incan Empire Met ruler Atahualpa near city Cajamarca Spanish: 200 man army; Incan: 30,000 man army Spanish ambushed, kidnapped Atahualpa Received ransom of gold and silver But, strangled Atahualpa anyway Incans retreated Captured capital Cuzco without a struggle in 1533 Other regions Maya in the Yucatan & Guatemala
Spain’s Empire by mid-16 th Century 4 Viceroyalties New Spain [Mexico] New Granada [Ecuador] Peru [Peru] Rio de la Plata [Chile, Argentina]
Spanish Patterns of Conquest Techniques used during the reconquista of Spain [conquering Muslims] Live among them, imposing culture on them Relations between Spanish and natives common creation of mestizo population Oppressed natives Encomienda system – forced labor of natives in farms, ranches, or mines Spoken against by Bartolome de las Casas – new laws forbade enslavement in Too far away to enforce… Imposed culture Close control on trade – esp. silver & gold Sugar cane profitable NEED WORKERS Slaves from Africa by 1530s # descendents from Africans outnumbered Europeans within a few generations Laws prohibited trade with other nations Spread authority of Catholic Church
Spanish Colonial Society Blended Spanish, African, and Native American cultures Native styles of buildings, food, use of canoes Christanity and horses present African cooking, farming, dance, song Social Classes Spanish-born Europeans Creoles Mestizos Mulattos Natives Africans Valued education – fulflilled by the Church
Pushing North 1540 – Empire stretched from Mexico to Peru – Francisco Vásquez de Coronado led expedition through Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas Little gold Mostly priests settled to explore & colonize present-US MANY Christian missionaries in Spanish Empire seeking converts Evident today??
Effects of Spanish Conquistadors Conquered millions of natives with guns and disease Seized valuable goods esp. gold and silver Send abroad to Philippines for trade Made Spain very wealthy and powerful Natives – split Stop resisting, convert to Christianity Still fight and protect culture Changed patterns of global encounters Map connected by sea routes for trade (not just land routes)
REMEMBER: Conquered the Aztecs, Incas, and other natives easily with guns and disease Empire spread from California to Chile in the Americas Social hierarchy ranged from Africans (slaves) at the bottom to Spanish-born whites at the top Placement of mixed people on the scale indicates the commonality of interbreeding that was still seen as less- acceptable Economy focused on treasures (gold, silver) and later plantations (sugar, tobacco)
Portuguese in Brazil Cabrel claimed land in 1500 Conquered Tupian Indians (disease) Land grants began in 1530s – King would give land to nobles if they shared profits Economy: not instant wealth from gold & silver, rather from plantation agriculture & cattle Highest number slaves in the Americas Some instant $ from sale of brazilwood Blended culture similar to that of Spanish Empire
Europeans Settle North America Must compete with Spain Ignored Treaty of Torsedillas 1494 Find Northwest Passage – profitable trade route through North America instead of around it Doesn’t exist… oops!
New France New France – France’s colonial empire in North America based in present-day Quebec Jacques Cartier reached coast of eastern Canada c.1534 Named St. Lawrence River Named Montreal 1608 – Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec 1673 – Jesuit priest Marquette and trader Joliet explored Great Lakes & upper Mississippi River C.1673 – Sieur de La Salle explored lower Mississippi – claimed entire river valley for France – named Louisiana for Louis XIV
New France’s Trading Empire Sparsely populated lands Only 65,000 by 1760 No desire to build towns or raise families No Protestants allowed in NF – Louis XIV was Catholic Some settlements and forts along rivers 1700s Economy based on trade – furs, fishing Climate not suited to agriculture Dependent on natives to trade with; learn how to acquire goods themselves
REMEMBER: Small population Located in Canada, Ohio & Mississippi River Valleys Fur traders Worked with natives to survive
English Settlements Reached Jamestown in 1607, chartered by King James Settlers more interested in gold than crops – BIG fail Mostly single men looking for $$ 7/10 died in early years of hunger or disease Initially dependent on natives of survival Eventually good with tobacco cash crop farming 1620 – Pilgrims founded Plymouth, Massachusetts Persecuted in England Branch of Protestantism C.1630 – Puritans sought religious freedom from Anglican Church and founded large colony at Massachusetts Bay Numerous families enabled success
Varying English Colonies Founded on: Commercial Profit – New York, Virginia Religious Havens – MA, PA, MD Gifts from the King – Georgia, South Carolina All spent early years working with natives, trying to survive Learned to create wealth with resources & agriculture Fishing, shipbuilding, timber Rice, grains, tobacco Slaves later outnumber Europeans in south
Government of British Colonies Controlled by English monarch Saw themselves as English – wanted same rights Parliament passed laws affecting colonists High degree of self-government for local issues What problems could arise from this system of government? Think about distance between places, representation, $$, alliegances, etc.
REMEMBER: 13 original colonies along east coast Colonies established for different reasons Each colony was unique – shipbuilding in New England; agriculture in the South; industry & trade in MidAtlantic Economies varied Initially relied on natives to survive Large, increasing population compared to other colonial possessions
Dutch Found New Netherland 1609 – Henry Hudson sailed west for the Netherlands [was English] Hudson Bay, Hudson River, Hudson Strait named for him Dutch claimed regions along waterways Built trading posts at Fort Orange (Albany) and on Manhattan Island Dutch West India Company founded 1621 – colonize and expand fur trade Lands called New Netherland Struggled to gain settlers – allowed in more Dutch, Germans, French, Scandinavians
Colonizing the Caribbean Also colonized in 1600s Huge cotton & sugar plantations Demanded large supply of labor enslaved Africans
Struggle for North America English ousted the Dutch without firing a shot in 1664 1.2M colonists by 1750 in 13 colonies Wanted more land French problem 1754 – dispute over lands in Ohio Valley led to French and Indian War French & Algonquian VS English & Iroquois Natives aligned to their advantage Colonists, British, & Natives defeated French in 1763 Proclamation Line – set at boundary of the Appalachians to halt colonists from expanding westward
Colonists VS Natives King Philip’s War 1675 Metacom, a native ruler, led an attack on colonial villages in MA Following initial attacks, both sides massacred victims Colonists defeated natives after a year of fierce fighting Skirmishes, esp. along frontier, through 17 th century Disease more destructive than weapons Nearly whole tribes fell to smallpox, measles, etc. Severe shortage of labor in colonies Bring in African slaves
Journal Entry Imagine you are a European during the 1600s. Rank the order in which you would move to the Spanish Empire, New France, or the British Colonies [rank 1-3] and write a short paragraph for each saying why they ranked as such.
Big Ideas The voyages of Columbus prompted the Spanish to establish colonies in the Americas to create wealth The Spanish were able to easily conquer peoples of the Americas with guns, horses, and disease New France had a small population of fur traders and eventually was evicted by the British The British retained political control over numerous colonies based on different economies
ATB #17 Besides Africans and Natives in the Americas, what other groups have been enslaved throughout history?
Day 18 – Essential Questions How did the spread of Islam affect the slave trade? How did African slaves contribute to the development of the Americas? How did capitalism and mercantilism impact the economies of Europe and the Americas? How did the Columbian Exchange affect Europe, Africa, and the Americas?
Causes of African Slavery Natives difficult Offered resistance Knew land better Died from disease, warfare, treatment Spread of Islam in 7 th century – increase in slavery & slave trade Muslim rulers justified enslavement with Muslim belief that POWs could be sold as slaves 17M between to North Africa and SW Asia Slaves usually had some legal rights & opportunity for social mobility Could escape bondage in African societies, incl. marriage to family they served
Demand for Africans Colonization & plantation farming Advantages Already exposed to European diseases Experience in farming suitable to plantation work Less likely to escape Skin color – easier to catch them if they escape Atlantic Slave Trade – buying and selling of Africans for work in the Americas Spanish took early lead – plantations, silver mines More than 40% slaves brought to Brazil in time – plantations
Spread of Slavery England dominated slave trade from 1609 – 1807 when it abolished slave trade Transported nearly 1.7M to West Indies 400,000 sold to North American colonies Steadily grew once there 2M by 1830 African Cooperation Rulers & merchants willingly sold captives for profit along coastal port cities Gold, guns, other goods African Resistance Some voiced opposition King Affonso I
Forced Journey Triangular Trade – transatlantic trading network between Europe, Africa, and the Americas Manufactured goods from Europe to Africa Slaves from Africa to the Americas Crops & goods from Americas to Europe Middle Passage – voyage that brought captured Africans to the West Indies Bad conditions for both slaves and sailors Disease, physical abuse ~20% perished on each trip
Slavery in the Americas Sold at auction Work fields Work in house Developed new cultural heritage Kept music, stories Combined religions with Christianity – santaria Thousands ran away Laws to return to owner Punishment upon return
Consequences of the Slave Trade Africa Cultures lost generations of fittest members Families torn apart Introduced guns to the continent Americas Labor contribution Culture brought to Americas Substantial African-American populations today
The Columbian Exchange Columbian Exchange – global transfer of foods, plants, animals, diseases, and goods during colonization of the Americas Most important – CORN & POTATOES from Americas Inexpensive to grow Nutritious Steady part of diets worldwide Boosted populations Disease tragic on Native Americans
Economic Revolution in Europe New wealth + growth in overseas trade = New business & trade practices in Europe Dramatically changed economic atmosphere of Europe Capitalism – economic system based on private ownership and investment of resources for profit Gov’t no longer sole owner of great wealth Merchants wealthy from overseas trade with colonies Profits enabled reinvesting even more Inflation – increase in money supply More money, more demand Goods become scarce and valuable Costs of goods rise
Economic Rev. Continued Joint-stock Companies – investors buy shares of stock in a company Need much $$ to start a colony or overseas venture Great profits, great risks Numerous investors – individuals paid smaller amounts Founded Jamestown Mercantilism – economic policy holding that a country’s power depended on its wealth Get as wealthy as possible! Obtain gold and silver Establish favorable balance of trade – sell more than you buy Goal to be self sufficient Colonies provided silver, gold, food sources and served as a market for goods produced in Europe
Impact of Economic Revolution Growth of towns Rise of merchant class that controlled its own wealth Population continued to live in rural areas Majority of Europeans remained poor Increased wealth of European nations Mercantilism contributed to creation of national identity
Acrostic Poems / Alphabet Books / Songs For the Columbian Exchange or Atlantic Slave Trade, choose ONE: Write an acrostic poem with illustrations along the border Create an illustrated alphabet book Write a 2-3 minute song to the tune of a popular song Be creative!!! If you aren’t sure – ASK You may brainstorm with friends, but everyone turns in their OWN assignment
Big Ideas Europeans enslaved millions of Africans in their American colonies to meet growing labor needs The colonization of America introduced new items into the Eastern and Western hemispheres New global trade patterns gave rise to an economic revolution in Europe
ATB #18 Copy & react to this quote: “There are two things that have always haunted me: the brutality of the European traders and the stories I’ve heard about Africans selling other Africans into slavery.” Henry Louis Gates
Day 18 – Essential Questions How did African slaves contribute to the development of the Americas?
ATB #18 Study Chapter 20 key terms for quiz!!!
Day 19 – Essential Questions Why were explorers drawn to the Americas? Why were the Spanish able to easily defeat the Aztec and Incan civilizations? How were the French and English colonies in the Americas different in regards to land, economy, and relations with natives? What was the main consequence of the French and Indian War? How did the spread of Islam affect the slave trade? How did African slaves contribute to the development of the Americas? How did capitalism and mercantilism impact the economies of Europe and the Americas? How did the Columbian Exchange affect Europe, Africa, and the Americas?
Big Ideas The voyages of Columbus prompted the Spanish to establish colonies in the Americas to create wealth The Spanish were able to easily conquer peoples of the Americas with guns, horses, and disease New France had a small population of fur traders and eventually was evicted by the British The British retained political control over numerous colonies based on different economies Europeans enslaved millions of Africans in their American colonies to meet growing labor needs The colonization of America introduced new items into the Eastern and Western hemispheres New global trade patterns gave rise to an economic revolution in Europe