Presentation on theme: "World History: Patterns of Interaction Chapter 20"— Presentation transcript:
1World History: Patterns of Interaction Chapter 20 The Atlantic WorldWorld History: Patterns of InteractionChapter 20
2What happened on this day (Oct. 4) in 1918? ATB #16What happened on this day (Oct. 4) in 1918?
3Day 17 – Essential Questions Why were the Spanish able to easily defeat the Aztec and Incan civilizations?How were the French and English colonies in the Americas different in regards to land, economy, and relations with natives?What was the main consequence of the French and Indian War?
4Spain Builds an American Empire Motivation – fierce competition for wealth in Europe [GOLD]Christopher Columbus – Genoese captain hired by Ferdinand and Isabella to find a route to the Spice Islands by sailing westLanded in the Caribbean Oct. 12, 1492Called people “los indios” thinking he was in the IndiesIslands now called the West IndiesMiscalculated size of the earthClaimed San Salvador for SpainReturned to Spain 1493 monarchs financed 3 more tripsIntended to turn Caribbean lands into colonies – lands controlled by another nation
5Other Explorers Sail West 1500 – Pedro Alvares Cabral claimed Brazil for Portugal1501 – Amerigo Vespucci realizes land not part of Asia1507 – German mapmaker names new continent “America”1519 – Ferdinand Magellan sailed down coast of South America; tracks Strait of Magellan through southern tipSailed into Pacific Ocean – months without seeing landRan out of foodEventually reached Philippines, where Magellan was killed by natives [CLAIMED for Spain 1521]Crew, reduced by disease and starvation, continued west to home18 of original 250 men reached Spain in 1522 – first persons to circumnavigate the world
7Spanish Conquests in Mexico 1519 – Hernán Cortés landed in MexicoConquistadors – Spanish conquerers brought guns, horses, and diseaseClaimed lands for SpainSought gold and silver in Mexico, South America, and present- USEncountered native AztecsReached capital of TenochtitlanMontezuma II – Is Cortés a god?Agreed to give goldKilled many Aztecs starting spring 1520Conquered Aztecs in 1521Spanish weapons superiorOther native groups helped CortésDisease – measles, mumps, smallpox, typhus – no natural immunity
8Spanish Conquests in Peru 1532 – Francisco Pizarro – Spanish conquerer reached Peru and conquered the Incan EmpireMet ruler Atahualpa near city CajamarcaSpanish: 200 man army; Incan: 30,000 man armySpanish ambushed, kidnapped AtahualpaReceived ransom of gold and silverBut, strangled Atahualpa anywayIncans retreatedCaptured capital Cuzco without a struggle in 1533Other regionsMaya in the Yucatan & Guatemala
9Spain’s Empire by mid-16th Century 4 ViceroyaltiesNew Spain [Mexico]New Granada [Ecuador]Peru [Peru]Rio de la Plata [Chile, Argentina]
10Spanish Patterns of Conquest Techniques used during the reconquista of Spain [conquering Muslims]Live among them, imposing culture on themRelations between Spanish and natives common creation of mestizo populationOppressed nativesEncomienda system – forced labor of natives in farms, ranches, or minesSpoken against by Bartolome de las Casas – new laws forbade enslavement in Too far away to enforce…Imposed cultureClose control on trade – esp. silver & goldSugar cane profitable NEED WORKERSSlaves from Africa by 1530s# descendents from Africans outnumbered Europeans within a few generationsLaws prohibited trade with other nationsSpread authority of Catholic Church
11Spanish Colonial Society Blended Spanish, African, and Native American culturesNative styles of buildings, food, use of canoesChristanity and horses presentAfrican cooking, farming, dance, songSocial ClassesSpanish-born EuropeansCreolesMestizosMulattosNativesAfricansValued education – fulflilled by the Church
12Pushing North 1540 – Empire stretched from Mexico to Peru – Francisco Vásquez de Coronado led expedition through Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, KansasLittle goldMostly priests settled to explore & colonize present-USMANY Christian missionaries in Spanish Empire seeking convertsEvident today??
13Effects of Spanish Conquistadors Conquered millions of natives with guns and diseaseSeized valuable goods esp. gold and silverSend abroad to Philippines for tradeMade Spain very wealthy and powerfulNatives – splitStop resisting, convert to ChristianityStill fight and protect cultureChanged patterns of global encountersMap connected by sea routes for trade (not just land routes)
14REMEMBER:Conquered the Aztecs, Incas, and other natives easily with guns and diseaseEmpire spread from California to Chile in the AmericasSocial hierarchy ranged from Africans (slaves) at the bottom to Spanish-born whites at the topPlacement of mixed people on the scale indicates the commonality of interbreeding that was still seen as less- acceptableEconomy focused on treasures (gold, silver) and later plantations (sugar, tobacco)
15Portuguese in Brazil Cabrel claimed land in 1500 Conquered Tupian Indians (disease)Land grants began in 1530s – King would give land to nobles if they shared profitsEconomy: not instant wealth from gold & silver, rather from plantation agriculture & cattleHighest number slaves in the AmericasSome instant $ from sale of brazilwoodBlended culture similar to that of Spanish Empire
16Europeans Settle North America Must compete with SpainIgnored Treaty of Torsedillas 1494Find Northwest Passage – profitable trade route through North America instead of around itDoesn’t exist… oops!
17New FranceNew France – France’s colonial empire in North America based in present-day QuebecJacques Cartier reached coast of eastern Canada c.1534Named St. Lawrence RiverNamed Montreal1608 – Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec1673 – Jesuit priest Marquette and trader Joliet explored Great Lakes & upper Mississippi RiverC.1673 – Sieur de La Salle explored lower Mississippi – claimed entire river valley for France – named Louisiana for Louis XIV
18New France’s Trading Empire Sparsely populated landsOnly 65,000 by 1760No desire to build towns or raise familiesNo Protestants allowed in NF – Louis XIV was CatholicSome settlements and forts along rivers 1700sEconomy based on trade – furs, fishingClimate not suited to agricultureDependent on natives to trade with; learn how to acquire goods themselves
19REMEMBER: Small population Located in Canada, Ohio & Mississippi River ValleysFur tradersWorked with natives to survive
20English Settlements Reached Jamestown in 1607, chartered by King James Settlers more interested in gold than crops – BIG failMostly single men looking for $$7/10 died in early years of hunger or diseaseInitially dependent on natives of survivalEventually good with tobacco cash crop farming1620 – Pilgrims founded Plymouth, MassachusettsPersecuted in EnglandBranch of ProtestantismC.1630 – Puritans sought religious freedom from Anglican Church and founded large colony at Massachusetts BayNumerous families enabled success
21Varying English Colonies Founded on:Commercial Profit – New York, VirginiaReligious Havens – MA, PA, MDGifts from the King – Georgia, South CarolinaAll spent early years working with natives, trying to surviveLearned to create wealth with resources & agricultureFishing, shipbuilding, timberRice, grains, tobaccoSlaves later outnumber Europeans in south
22Government of British Colonies Controlled by English monarchSaw themselves as English – wanted same rightsParliament passed laws affecting colonistsHigh degree of self-government for local issuesWhat problems could arise from this system of government? Think about distance between places, representation, $$, alliegances, etc.
23REMEMBER: 13 original colonies along east coast Colonies established for different reasonsEach colony was unique – shipbuilding in New England; agriculture in the South; industry & trade in MidAtlanticEconomies variedInitially relied on natives to surviveLarge, increasing population compared to other colonial possessions
24Dutch Found New Netherland 1609 – Henry Hudson sailed west for the Netherlands [was English]Hudson Bay, Hudson River, Hudson Strait named for himDutch claimed regions along waterwaysBuilt trading posts at Fort Orange (Albany) and on Manhattan IslandDutch West India Company founded1621 – colonize and expand fur tradeLands called New NetherlandStruggled to gain settlers – allowed in more Dutch, Germans, French, Scandinavians
25Colonizing the Caribbean Also colonized in 1600sHuge cotton & sugar plantationsDemanded large supply of labor enslaved Africans
26Struggle for North America English ousted the Dutch without firing a shot in 16641.2M colonists by 1750 in 13 coloniesWanted more land French problem1754 – dispute over lands in Ohio Valley led to French and Indian WarFrench & Algonquian VS English & IroquoisNatives aligned to their advantageColonists, British, & Natives defeated French in 1763Proclamation Line – set at boundary of the Appalachians to halt colonists from expanding westward
27Colonists VS Natives King Philip’s War 1675 Metacom, a native ruler, led an attack on colonial villages in MAFollowing initial attacks, both sides massacred victimsColonists defeated natives after a year of fierce fightingSkirmishes, esp. along frontier, through 17th centuryDisease more destructive than weaponsNearly whole tribes fell to smallpox, measles, etc.Severe shortage of labor in coloniesBring in African slaves
28Journal EntryImagine you are a European during the 1600s. Rank the order in which you would move to the Spanish Empire, New France, or the British Colonies [rank 1-3] and write a short paragraph for each saying why they ranked as such.
29Big IdeasThe voyages of Columbus prompted the Spanish to establish colonies in the Americas to create wealthThe Spanish were able to easily conquer peoples of the Americas with guns, horses, and diseaseNew France had a small population of fur traders and eventually was evicted by the BritishThe British retained political control over numerous colonies based on different economies
30ATB #17Besides Africans and Natives in the Americas, what other groups have been enslaved throughout history?
31Day 18 – Essential Questions How did the spread of Islam affect the slave trade?How did African slaves contribute to the development of the Americas?How did capitalism and mercantilism impact the economies of Europe and the Americas?How did the Columbian Exchange affect Europe, Africa, and the Americas?
32Causes of African Slavery Natives difficultOffered resistanceKnew land betterDied from disease, warfare, treatmentSpread of Islam in 7th century – increase in slavery & slave tradeMuslim rulers justified enslavement with Muslim belief that POWs could be sold as slaves17M between to North Africa and SW AsiaSlaves usually had some legal rights & opportunity for social mobilityCould escape bondage in African societies, incl. marriage to family they served
33Demand for Africans Colonization & plantation farming Advantages Already exposed to European diseasesExperience in farming suitable to plantation workLess likely to escapeSkin color – easier to catch them if they escapeAtlantic Slave Trade – buying and selling of Africans for work in the AmericasSpanish took early lead – plantations, silver minesMore than 40% slaves brought to Brazil in time – plantations
35Spread of SlaveryEngland dominated slave trade from 1609 – when it abolished slave tradeTransported nearly 1.7M to West Indies400,000 sold to North American coloniesSteadily grew once there2M by 1830African CooperationRulers & merchants willingly sold captives for profit along coastal port citiesGold, guns, other goodsAfrican ResistanceSome voiced oppositionKing Affonso I
36Forced JourneyTriangular Trade – transatlantic trading network between Europe, Africa, and the AmericasManufactured goods from Europe to AfricaSlaves from Africa to the AmericasCrops & goods from Americas to EuropeMiddle Passage – voyage that brought captured Africans to the West IndiesBad conditions for both slaves and sailorsDisease, physical abuse~20% perished on each trip
37Slavery in the Americas Sold at auctionWork fieldsWork in houseDeveloped new cultural heritageKept music, storiesCombined religions with Christianity – santariaThousands ran awayLaws to return to ownerPunishment upon return
38Consequences of the Slave Trade AfricaCultures lost generations of fittest membersFamilies torn apartIntroduced guns to the continentAmericasLabor contributionCulture brought to AmericasSubstantial African-American populations today
39The Columbian Exchange Columbian Exchange – global transfer of foods, plants, animals, diseases, and goods during colonization of the AmericasMost important – CORN & POTATOES from AmericasInexpensive to growNutritiousSteady part of diets worldwideBoosted populationsDisease tragic on Native Americans
41Economic Revolution in Europe New wealth + growth in overseas trade = New business & trade practices in EuropeDramatically changed economic atmosphere of EuropeCapitalism – economic system based on private ownership and investment of resources for profitGov’t no longer sole owner of great wealthMerchants wealthy from overseas trade with coloniesProfits enabled reinvesting even moreInflation – increase in money supplyMore money, more demandGoods become scarce and valuableCosts of goods rise
42Economic Rev. Continued Joint-stock Companies – investors buy shares of stock in a companyNeed much $$ to start a colony or overseas ventureGreat profits, great risksNumerous investors – individuals paid smaller amountsFounded JamestownMercantilism – economic policy holding that a country’s power depended on its wealthGet as wealthy as possible!Obtain gold and silverEstablish favorable balance of trade – sell more than you buyGoal to be self sufficientColonies provided silver, gold, food sources and served as a market for goods produced in Europe
43Impact of Economic Revolution Growth of townsRise of merchant class that controlled its own wealthPopulation continued to live in rural areasMajority of Europeans remained poorIncreased wealth of European nationsMercantilism contributed to creation of national identity
44Acrostic Poems / Alphabet Books / Songs For the Columbian Exchange or Atlantic Slave Trade, choose ONE:Write an acrostic poem with illustrations along the borderCreate an illustrated alphabet bookWrite a 2-3 minute song to the tune of a popular songBe creative!!!If you aren’t sure – ASK You may brainstorm with friends, but everyone turns in their OWN assignment
45Big IdeasEuropeans enslaved millions of Africans in their American colonies to meet growing labor needsThe colonization of America introduced new items into the Eastern and Western hemispheresNew global trade patterns gave rise to an economic revolution in Europe
46ATB #18Copy & react to this quote:“There are two things that have always haunted me: the brutality of the European traders and the stories I’ve heard about Africans selling other Africans into slavery.” Henry Louis Gates
47Day 18 – Essential Questions How did African slaves contribute to the development of the Americas?
49Day 19 – Essential Questions Why were explorers drawn to the Americas?Why were the Spanish able to easily defeat the Aztec and Incan civilizations?How were the French and English colonies in the Americas different in regards to land, economy, and relations with natives?What was the main consequence of the French and Indian War?How did the spread of Islam affect the slave trade?How did African slaves contribute to the development of the Americas?How did capitalism and mercantilism impact the economies of Europe and the Americas?How did the Columbian Exchange affect Europe, Africa, and the Americas?
50Big IdeasThe voyages of Columbus prompted the Spanish to establish colonies in the Americas to create wealthThe Spanish were able to easily conquer peoples of the Americas with guns, horses, and diseaseNew France had a small population of fur traders and eventually was evicted by the BritishThe British retained political control over numerous colonies based on different economiesEuropeans enslaved millions of Africans in their American colonies to meet growing labor needsThe colonization of America introduced new items into the Eastern and Western hemispheresNew global trade patterns gave rise to an economic revolution in Europe