Presentation on theme: "Fundamental change in way political system operates Fundamental change in way political system operates Change in the basis on which rulers come to power,"— Presentation transcript:
Fundamental change in way political system operates Fundamental change in way political system operates Change in the basis on which rulers come to power, their authority and their mission in office Change in the basis on which rulers come to power, their authority and their mission in office How do these revolutions stack up? Are they just a change of rulers? How do these revolutions stack up? Are they just a change of rulers? Glorious Revolution 1688 Glorious Revolution 1688 American Revolution 1776 American Revolution 1776 French Revolution 1789 French Revolution 1789 Haitian Revolution 1791 Haitian Revolution 1791 Russian Revolution 1917 Russian Revolution 1917
Change! Return to the past! Conservative Change! The old way stinks! Liberal THESE REVOLUTIONS LED TO: Change of RulersChange of Rulers Change in relationship between rulers and ruledChange in relationship between rulers and ruled Increased participation of people in GovernmentIncreased participation of people in Government …BUT DID THEY PROVIDE LIBERTY AND EQUALITY FOR ALL?
King James and King Charles spending WAY too much money! Charles dissolves Parliament – He wants to be an Absolute Monarch! English Civil War! Oliver Cromwell and Roundheads win! Does my head look round to you? …at least you still have one…
Charles loses his head! After Cromwell dies, James II… I don’t think so! William and Mary (of Orange) invitation
7 Years War 1756 – 1763 – a victory North America India American Revolution 1775 – 1783 – a loss Glorious Revolution 1689 Overthrows King James II (a Catholic in Protestant England) barred any future Catholic succession to the throne. King no longer allowed to suspend laws King no longer allowed to levy taxes King no longer allowed to maintain a standing army in peacetime with Parliament’s consent Constitutional Monarchy!
three “estates” Louis the XVI calls for meeting of the three “estates” 3 rd Estate creates their own National Assembly 7 Years War – Huge Debts – including colonies… Aristocrats MAD – new taxes! Merchants and New Middle-Class MAD – Aristocrats had privileges they didn’t! Urban people MAD – high prices and unemployment! Rural people MAD – taxes and obligations to the Church and State
Liberty! The state of being free within society from oppressive restrictions imposed by authority on one's way of life. Equality! The state of being equal, esp. in status, rights, and opportunities
Can you have complete liberty and complete equality at the same time? ….lets discuss!
Radical and Violent Revolution! all men are born free and equal!) Declaration on the Rights of Man ( all men are born free and equal!) Calls for Universal Suffrage End Slavery? State replaces Church in many functions: Recording births and deaths Marriages Holidays Thousands killed
Protect the revolution - Traitors to are everywhere! 40,000 executions per year! To protect the revolution from foreign influence, attack them foreign influence, attack them first! first! Levee en masse – national draft 800,000 soldiers to spread liberty and equality liberty and equality throughout Europe! throughout Europe! End of Feudal Obligations! Universal education! Price controls!
French Republic Calendar Vendé miaire Brumaire Frimaire Nivôse PluviôseVentôse Germinal Floréal Prairial Messi dor Therm idor Fructi dor vintage mistfrostsnowrainwindseed blossommeadow harvest heatfruits The twelve months were grouped by seasons (so, we have four groups of three months), and all the months in a group rhyme Each month had three 10 day weeks Even time was converted to be more “rational” – Each day was divided in 10 hours, ( the fifth hour was noon, and the tenth was midnight). Each hour had 100 decimal minutes, and each decimal minute 100 decimal seconds. Since there are "normal" seconds in a day, and decimal seconds, this gives the following equivalence: 1 decimal second = seconds 1 decimal minute = 1 minute 26.4 seconds 1 decimal hour = 2 hours 24 minutes
“Tames” the revolution in 1804 Preserved the moderate elements Civil equality Secular law Religious freedom …dispensed with LIBERTY (and racial equality) – Dictatorship!
a series of wars fought between France and alliances involving Britain, Prussia, Spain, Portugal, Russia and Austria at different times, from 1799 to 1815.
Creates huge empire Ends feudalism Equal rights Religious toleration Codifies laws (Napoleonic Code) NATIONALISM Some welcomed the change, some resisted – stirs up NATIONALISM Intent on spreading French progress by FORCE
1802 Slavery legal again! Slaves Revolt! Napoleon sends in the troops! Yellow fever and fierce resistance destroys French troops Faced by imminent war against Britain and bankruptcy, Louisiana Purchase Napoleon sells French possessions (that he took from Spain) in North America to the United States—the Louisiana Purchase —for less than three cents per acre Toussaint Louverture
1812 invasion of Russia as far as Moscow! …as far as Moscow! …long and disastrous retreat! Entered Russia with over 400,000 troops – less than 40,000 make it home…
Napoleon finally defeated by combined armies of Europe Waterloo …after all that, a King is placed on the throne… Louis the XVIII…albeit with much less power as a constitutional monarchy… Crap. TA-DA!!
Defeated by European coalition at Waterloo! Napoleanic Era comes to an end
1768 The colonial period was marked by a rigidly stratified society. At the top of the system were the peninsulares, Spaniards born in Spain, they held most of the political power creoles creoles, persons of pure Spanish ancestry born in America. Had much of the wealth but wanted more political power Most of the population were mestizos, mixed Spanish and Indian ancestry; at the bottom were Indians and Negroes.
Persons of mixed race were collectively referred to as "castas” By the end of the colonial period in 1821, over one hundred categories of possible variations of mixture existed. The system implied that the quality and character of people depends on their color and ethnicity. Social and economic implications
Elite planters resented Spanish merchantilism French invasion of Spain led to the collapse of Spanish Monarchy Revolution becomes struggle for power between Elites – (Creoles and Penisulares) …not equality for all… Venezuela and other Latin American nations…
Village life dominated – nearly self sufficient Most villagers were farmers – simple methods were used Entire family was involved Early industries – wool & coal (domestic system)
World Population 1400 – 375 million 1800 – 1 BILLION Energy crisis – wood and charcoal scarce (price ↑) Need an alternative energy source to replace old limited resources (sound familiar?) Fossil fuels! Coal, oil and natural gas New, powerful sources of energy replace wind, water and muscle LEADS TO A 50 FOLD INCREASE IN PRODUCTIVITY IN ONLY 150 YEARS
Coal fired Steam Engine!
textiles, iron steel, food processing, chemicals, electricity, telephone, telegraph, etc… Increased production
Europe and rest of the world very similar (life expectancy, living standards, nutrition, etc) Smaller Smaller Nation-States led to highly competitive atmosphere Newness Newness – no large tax collecting bureaucracy, lead to alliance between leaders and merchants (charters, monopolies, scientific societies, etc) Competition Competition – capitalism leads to innovation World Trade World Trade – forced to compete with goods from Asia
52 millions lbs of cotton used in 1800 588 million lbs of cotton used in 1850 Lots of handy coal and iron deposits More agriculture output meant lower food prices and less farm work meant more workers World wide business market Religious tolerance drew skilled labor from other areas No revolution (like France)
Increased world productivity Synthetic materials are developed New inventions improved quality of life for many Growth of railroads Population growth stabilized Death rates fell (people ate better and kept cleaner) Birth rates fell (family planning practiced because people didn’t need large families to ensure survival) Rise of Middle-Class Merchants to clerks vote by 1832
70% are lower (laboring) class Suffered most and gained the least! Overcrowded, smoky, dangerous, low wages, child labor, etc…
Karl Marx – Industrial capitalism was unstable! Those who did all the work, suffered the most and would surely rise up and create a classless society! REVOLUTION!
Socialism diffused by the new middle class Life had improved and they were protective of those improvements No desire to lose new status Wages rising, food prices dropping, child labor laws passing – Marx did not foresee society taking upon reform upon itself
Absolute monarchy…still. No legal political parties No nation-wide elections Serfs (slaves) not freed until 1861 Forced industrialization New middle-class resents royal control Serfs go from fields to factories (still have no rights) 13 hr days, living in barracks, ruthless discipline Marxist socialism sounds very appealing…
Economic Economic factors – competition of industrial revolution Resources Markets Nationalistic Nationalistic factors – competition of nation-states We’re bigger and better than you Cultural Cultural factors You should live like us, we are modern and awesome (slavery should end!) Military Military factors Protect those colonies
Sepoy – an Indian soldier employed by British East India Company 1857 Sepoy Mutiny – caste differences and beef/pork fat The rebellion led to the dissolution of the East India Company in 1858, and forced the British to reorganize the army, the financial system, and the administration in India India was thereafter directly governed by the Crown in the new British Raj
" New Crowns for Old Ones!" Empress of India British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli presents Queen Victoria with the title of Empress of India in There was a great deal of opposition, but the queen insisted, since she was a great enthusiast for imperialism and felt that such an act would signify her personal relationship with the Indians and the interest she professed to have in their welfare.
An Englishman in India dresses for his day, attended by four servants. Because of the very low income levels of the Indian people, British "colonials" in India could literally live like princes, with many servants attending to their every need.
Lots of resources! Very few modern weapons!
The Berlin Conference
Brought peace and prosperity Kept Chinese culture including Confucian tradition and civil service system Conquered much of Central Asia and Tibet Western traders and missionaries flood into southern Chinese ports Qing - China’s final dynasty (Manchu Dynasty) Foreign, not considered “Han” Chinese
Increased population Poverty Starvation Peasant Uprisings Lack of industrialization – not seen as a need Lack of change/reform Discontent from within, slow to change and those sneaky Europeans find another way to undermine the power of China
When China continues to limit trade with the West, Britain begins to illegally smuggle Opium into China Drains the country of silver Millions of addicts dependent on British Opium " Opium Wars " - between China and Britain leads to defeats for China. Britain gets Hong Kong Japan attacks in 1894 ant takes Korea, Taiwan and Port Arthur.
50 of China’s most prosperous ports were deemed "treaty ports" which meant that they were open to foreign trade and residence. spheres of influence European nations divided China into spheres of influence The wishes of the Chinese were ignored. This, understandably, created a great deal of resentment amongst the Chinese.
The Boxer Rebellion – anti- foreign movement Hundreds of Europeans killed but European backlash leads to European control of most of China 1911 – Nationalist Chinese forces under Sun-Yat- Sen force the abdication of the last emperor Pu Yi
Rising Nationalism means loss of peripheral territory: Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Balkans, Egypt “Defensive” modernization efforts – lead to huge debts to industrial countries Leads to loss of Sultan’s power and rising secularism Young Ottomans and Young Turks push for more reform and Turkish Nationalism The “Sick Man of Europe ”
Only one port open to trade with outside world (Portuguese only) …highly stratified society with samurai class at top and merchants at bottom – both jealous of each other Agricultural innovation and rising urbanism Class conflict (and no real need for samurai) 1852 Commodore Matthew Perry forces Japan to open trade with the U.S.
Meiji Restoration – the end of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1867 The Emperor and his ministers (making decisions in his name)(not Shogun) controls a united Japan Rapid industrialization led by nation (government monopolies created then sold to private companies); railroads, ports, etc Fascination with western technology, politics, dress, etc Military build-up and Imperialism Korea Taiwan Manchuria