Presentation on theme: "Africa – Slavery/Imperialism/Apartheid. African Slave trade… Low estimates state 12 million Africans were shipped to the Americas from 1500’s – 1800’s."— Presentation transcript:
African Slave trade… Low estimates state 12 million Africans were shipped to the Americas from 1500’s – 1800’s to work as slaves. Leaders of some indigenous African states participated in the trade earning $$ and firearms; Millions of young African were forced to abandon the continent of their birth; many died in transit or were worked to death; few who survived returned thus depriving the continent of a generation of the vital resource of young, energetic men & women. When slavery was abolished (first in Europe then in the US) it left the east & west coasts of the continent with a great loss of people (diaspora) – but also helped spread African ideas, customs & beliefs around the world.
European Imperialism in Africa… European industrialization replaced their need for human labor with a need for raw materials so once again Africa with its rich resource base became a focus. By the mid to late 1800’s economic, political & religious motives led European nations to an all out scramble for control of Africa. At the Berlin Conference in 1884 13 European leaders gathered to carve up sub-Saharan Africa into colonies – no African leaders were present. After this surveyors, soldiers, missionaries, officials & settlers flocked from Europe to Africa to enforce their claims. There were wars of resistance however in many cases European weapons & military technology were superior. Liberia & Ethiopia were the only 2 African states that retained autonomy throughout the colonial period of the continent.
Control of Southern Africa… 3 groups engaged in a bitter power struggle for this region: local African groups (like the Zulu); Dutch settlers (called “Boers”); and the British. Local African groups battled to control the desirable farmland of Southern Africa. Of these groups the Zulu – under the leadership of Shaka – created the largest African kingdom due to their innovative & fierce military skill.
Southern Africa continued… Dutch settlers came to southern tip of the continent in 1652 & set up a colony at Cape Town. They enslaved the local Africans they encountered & tried pushed north where they discovered diamonds, gold & the Zulu. With the help of British troops, the Boers were able to defeat the Zulu & control the region …until… The British decided they wanted it for themselves! The British & Boers go to war with the British eventually winning ; however… 8 yrs. Later the British grant self-government to the area creating the “union of South Africa” & set up a constitution that gave the right to vote to white men only.
South Africa… Because the Boers made up a majority of the white population of South Africa they gained control of the government. This gov’t. introduced the policy of “separateness” known as Apartheid & enacted laws that were prejudicial to nonwhites. Laws were passed to separate races in all aspects of life (work/school/relationships/settlement areas, etc.) Ultimately black homelands were established – to be occupied by blacks on the worst land. This formal system of discrimination & racism led to total political & social control by the white minority.
Life under Apartheid… 3 million blacks lived in these homelands & were forced to carry “passes” which limited their movement outside of the homelands as well. Blacks were denied formal citizenship as they were considered citizens of the homelands & not of the nation. Some non-whites were allowed to live in “townships”, segregated neighborhoods on the outskirts of cities, where their labor was needed.
Opposition to Apartheid… Opposition to Apartheid began in 1960’s & was led by blacks, but “coloureds” & Asians also were involved. International pressure, including trade restrictions & banning from international athletic competitions also helped end Apartheid; “Pass Laws” were eliminated in the 1980’s;
End of Apartheid… 1989 S. A. President F.W. DeClerk lifted the ban on the African National Congress (ANC) & other groups that opposed Apartheid; in 1990 Nelson Mandela – the ANC’s best known leader, was freed after 27 years in prison & the gov’t. begins to hold talks with black leaders; Early 1990’s a new constitution is written to guarantee black South African’s rights;
S. Africa after Apartheid… 1994 – free elections are held & Nelson Mandela is elected as the new President. Homelands were finally eliminated from maps of South Africa; Racial & residential segregation is officially made illegal, but South Africa remained sharply divided along race lines; 1999 – a peaceful exchange of power sees Thabo Mbeki replace Mandela as the new leader; Jacob Zuma replaced Mbeki & started his 2 nd term in 2009; he was a member of the S. Af. Communist party & has faced charges of rape, corruption & fraud – all of which have been dropped. Racial & economic problems persist in South Africa up to the present. HIV/AIDS numbers are high as is the crime rate.
South Africa since Apartheid… http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/video/nelson- mandelas-final-act-10886089 http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/video/nelson- mandelas-final-act-10886089 http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/internati onal/countriesandterritories/southafrica/inde x.html http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/internati onal/countriesandterritories/southafrica/inde x.html http://www.anc.org.za/ http://www.anc.org.za/
Significant leaders for African Independence… W.E.B. Dubois Jomo Kenyatta Julius Nyerere Kwame Nkrumah How was each man significant in the history of Africa’s independence movements? STAND & DELIVER…
Enduring Political Conflict… Lack of readiness to participate in and run democratic governments (“institutional framework”); Political & geographic structure of newly independent states ignored indigenous cultural and political differences & instead placed groups together that had no desire to be together.
TRIBALISM… Defined: Loyalty to the ethnic group rather than to the state. Tribal identities take precedence over national identities; Most sub-Saharan nations have had a difficult time forging a “national identity” that appeals to all groups within the nation. Virtually all African borders were “inherited” through colonialism.
Refugees… Definition: People who flee their state because of a well-founded fear of persecution based on race, ethnicity, religion, or politics. Internally displaced refugees – people who have fled from conflict but not left their country. Over 3 million in Africa had “refugee” status in 2000. http://www.unhcr.org/do1thing/index.php http://www.unhcr.org/do1thing/index.php