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© 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. 1 Monopolistic Competition and Oligopoly

2 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Monopolistic Competition Monopolistic competition –Many producers –Low barriers to entry –Slightly different products A firm that raises prices: lose some customers to rivals –Some control over price ‘Price makers’ Downward sloping demand curve –Act independently or interdependently 2

3 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Monopolistic Competition Product differentiation –Physical differences Appearance; quality –Location Spatial differentiation –Services –Product image Promotion; advertising 3

4 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Short-Run Profit or Loss Curves –Demand curve, D Slopes downward –Marginal revenue, MR Below the demand curve Slopes downward –Average total cost, ATC –Average variable cost, AVC –Marginal cost, MC 4

5 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Short-Run Profit or Loss Maximize profit: MR=MC –Price: on D curve If p>ATC –Economic profit If ATC>p>AVC –Economic loss; Produce in short run If p

6 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Exhibit 1 6 Monopolistic Competitor in the Short Run p c Dollars per unit Quantity per period q0 MC D MR ATC e Profit (a) Maximizing short-run profit The monopolistically competitive firm produces the level of output at which marginal revenue equals marginal cost (point e) and charges the price indicated by point b on the downward-sloping demand curve. In panel (a), the firm produces q units, sells them at price p, and earns a short-run economic profit equal to (p-c) multiplied by q, shown by the blue rectangle. In panel (b), the average total cost exceeds the price at the output where marginal revenue equals marginal cost. Thus, the firm suffers a short-run loss equal to (c p) multiplied by q, shown by the pink rectangle. p c Dollars per unit Quantity per period q0 MC D MR AVC e Loss (b) Minimizing short-run loss ATC b c b c

7 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Profit in the Long-Run Short run economic profit –New firms enter the market –Draw customers away from other firms –Reduce demand facing other firms –Profit disappears in long run Zero economic profit 7

8 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Profit in the Long-Run Short run economic loss –Some firms exit the market –Their customers switch to other firms –Increase demand facing the remaining firms –Loss is erased in the long run Zero economic profit 8

9 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Exhibit 2 9 Long-Run Equilibrium in Monopolistic Competition 0q Quantity per period p Dollars per unit D MR MC a ATC b If existing firms earn economic profit in the short run, new firms will enter the industry in the long run. This entry reduces the demand facing each firm. In the long run, each firm’s demand curve shifts leftward until marginal revenue equals marginal cost (point a) and the demand curve is tangent to the average total cost curve (point b). Economic profit is zero at output q. With zero economic profit, no more firms will enter, so the industry is in long- run equilibrium. The same long- run outcome occurs if firms suffer a short-run loss. Firms leave until remaining firms earn just a normal profit.

10 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Fast forward to creative destruction 1970s, videocassette recorders –Expensive –Increased demand for videotaped movies –Video rental stores Security deposits Membership fees ($100) Little competition Short run economic profit 10

11 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Fast forward to creative destruction Supply of rental stores increased –Faster than demand –Rental rates: $0.99; –No fees or deposits Latest substitutes –On-demand movies (broadband cable) –Downloads from the Internet –Grab-and-go rental kiosks –Online rental services that mail DVDs 11

12 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Fast forward to creative destruction Creative destruction –‘Out with the old, in with the new’ –Technological change –Some producers lose –Consumers benefit Wider choice More competitive prices 12

13 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Comparison Monopolistic competition and perfect competition –Zero economic profit in long run –MR=MC for quantity Where demand curve is tangent to average total cost curve 13

14 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Comparison Perfect competition –Firm’s demand: horizontal line –Produces at minimum average cost –Productive and allocative efficiency 14

15 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Comparison Monopolistic competition –Downward sloping demand curve –Not producing at minimum average cost Excess capacity –Produces less, charges more Than perfect competitor In the long run –Spend more to differentiate their products 15

16 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Comparison Excess capacity –Difference between a firm’s profit- maximizing quantity –And the quantity that minimizes average cost Firms with excess capacity –Could reduce average cost –By increasing quantity 16

17 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Exhibit 3 17 Perfect Competition Versus Monopolistic Competition in Long-Run Equilibrium p Dollars per unit Quantity per period q0 d=MR=AR (a) Perfect competition Cost curves are assumed to be the same in each panel. The perfectly competitive firm of panel (a) faces a demand curve that is horizontal at market price p. Long-run equilibrium occurs at output q, where the demand curve is tangent to the average total cost curve at its lowest point. The monopolistically competitive firm of panel (b) is in long-run equilibrium at output q’, where demand is tangent to the average total cost curve. Because the demand curve slopes downward in panel (b), the tangency does not occur at the minimum point of average total cost. Thus, the monopolistically competitive firm produces less output and charges a higher price than does a perfectly competitive firm with the same cost curves. Neither firm earns economic profit in the long run. The firm in monopolistic competition has excess capacity, meaning that it could reduce average cost by increasing its rate of output. (b) Monopolistic competition p’ Dollars per unit Quantity per period q’0 MC D MR ATC MC

18 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Introduction to Oligopoly Oligopoly –Few firms –Each behaves interdependently The more similar the products –The greater interdependence Undifferentiated oligopoly –Oligopoly that sells a commodity 18

19 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Introduction to Oligopoly Differentiated oligopoly –Oligopoly that sells products that differ across suppliers Product differentiation Physical qualities Sales location Services Product image 19

20 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Introduction to Oligopoly Barriers to entry –Economies of scale –Legal restrictions –Brand names –Control over an essential resource –High cost of entry Start-up costs; advertising –Crowding out the competition 20

21 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Exhibit 4 21 Economies of Scale as a Barrier to Entry caca Dollars per unit cbcb Autos per year S0M Long-run average cost At point b, an existing firm can produce M or more automobiles at an average cost of c b. A new entrant able to sell only S automobiles would incur a much higher average cost of c a at point a. If automobile prices are below c a, a new entrant would suffer a loss. In this case, economies of scale serve as a barrier to entry, insulating firms that have achieved minimum efficient scale from new competitors. a b

22 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Models of Oligopoly Interdependence –Cooperation or –Fierce competition Collusion Price leadership Game theory 22

23 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Collusion and Cartels Collusion –Agreement among firms to Increase economic profit by –Dividing the market –Fixing the price Cartel –Group of firms that agree to coordinate their production and pricing decisions To reap monopoly profit –Illegal in U.S. 23

24 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Exhibit 5 24 Cartel as a Monopolist Quantity per periodQ 0 MC D MR p Dollars per unit c A cartel acts like a monopolist. Here, D is the market demand curve, MR the associated marginal revenue curve, and MC the horizontal sum of the marginal cost curves of cartel members (assuming all firms in the market join the cartel). Cartel profits are maximized when the industry produces quantity Q and charges price p.

25 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Collusion and Cartels Maximize profit –Allocate output among cartel members –Same MC of the final unit produced Difficulties to maintain a cartel: –Differentiated product –Differences in average cost –Many firms in the cartel –Low barriers to entry –Cheating 25

26 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Price Leadership Price leadership –Informal, tacit collusion Price leader –Sets the price for the industry –Initiate price changes –Followed by the other firms 26

27 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Price Leadership Obstacles –U.S. antitrust laws –Product differentiation –No guarantee others will follow –Barriers to entry –Cheating 27

28 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Game Theory Game theory –Approach that analyzes oligopolistic behavior –Series of strategic moves and countermoves by rival firms General approach –Focus: each player’s incentives to cooperate or compete 28

29 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Game Theory Prisoner’s dilemma –Game that shows why players have difficulty cooperating –Even though they would benefit from cooperation Strategy –Operational plan pursued by a player 29

30 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Game Theory Payoff matrix –Table listing the payoffs That each player can expect from each move Based on the actions of the other player Dominant-strategy equilibrium –Outcome achieved when each player’s choice does not depend on what the other player does 30

31 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Exhibit 6 31 The Prisoner’s Dilemma Payoff Matrix (years in jail) Jerry ConfessClam up Ben Confess Clam up This matrix shows the years each prisoner can expect to spend in jail based on his actions and the actions of the other prisoner. Ben’s payoff is in red and Jerry’s in blue.

32 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Game Theory Duopoly –Market with only two producers Nash equilibrium –A player chooses the best strategy given the strategies chosen by others –No participant can improve his or her outcome by changing strategies Even after learning of the strategies selected by other participants 32

33 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Exhibit 7 33 Price-Setting Payoff Matrix (profit per day) Exxon Low priceHigh price Texaco Low price High price $200 $1,000 $200 $700 $500 This matrix shows the daily profit each gas station can expect to earn based on the price each charges. Texaco’s price is in red and Exxon’s is in blue.

34 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Exhibit 8 34 Cola War Payoff Matrix (annual profit in billions) Coke Big budget Moderate budget Pepsi Big budget Moderate budget $1 $4 $1 $3 $2 This matrix shows annual profit each soft-drink company can expect to earn based on the promotional budget each adopts. Pepsi’s profit is in red and Coke’s is in blue.

35 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Game Theory One-shot versus repeated games –One-shot game Game is played just once –Repeated games Establish reputation for cooperation Tit-for-tat strategy –Highest payoff 35

36 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Game Theory Tit-for-tat –Strategy in repeated games –A player in one round of the game mimics the other player’s behavior in the previous round –Optimal strategy for getting the other player to cooperate 36

37 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Game Theory Coordination game –Game in which a Nash equilibrium occurs when each player chooses the same strategy –Neither player can do better than matching the other player’s strategy 37

38 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Comparison Oligopoly –If firms collude or operate with excess capacity Higher price Lower output –If price wars Lower price –Higher profits in the long run 38

39 © 2012 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a password-protected website for classroom use. Exhibit 9 39 Comparison of Market Structures


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