Presentation on theme: "01/10/2013 Professor de Bioquímica, Universidade de São Paulo Assessor, Diretoria Científica, FAPESP HERNÁN CHAIMOVICH Hernan Chaimovich 1 Escola UNESP."— Presentation transcript:
01/10/2013 Professor de Bioquímica, Universidade de São Paulo Assessor, Diretoria Científica, FAPESP HERNÁN CHAIMOVICH Hernan Chaimovich 1 Escola UNESP de Liderança e Gestão A Lógica da Pesquisa na Universidade de Pesquisa
01/10/2013 CONTEXT Hernan Chaimovich 2 1)Universities constitute a wide spectrum of Institutions; 2)Basic Research is mainly produced in Research Universities by graduates and PosDocs; 3)Some non Research Universities contribute to Research 4)Maintaining a Research University requires the best Academic Leadership at all levels; 5)Inhibition of collaboration and interdisciplinarity by obsolete structures can be surpassed by strong academic leadership; 6)Public Funding of research in a Research University is essential; 7)The logic of research within a Research University is related to, but not absolutely dependent of, the Policy of Research Funding agents, it also depends on academic leadership.
01/10/2013 INSTITUTIONS NAMED “UNIVERSITY” COVER A WIDE SPECTRAL (?) RANGE Hernan Chaimovich 3 UNIP HARVARD
01/10/2013 WHAT ARE UNIVERSITIES FOR? Hernan Chaimovich 4 What are Universities for? Stephan Collini, Penguin, 2012
01/10/2013 Hernan Chaimovich 5 What are Universities for? Stephan Collini Penguin, 2012 This discomfort is unacceptable in a Brazilian research university WHAT ARE THE ROLES OF THE HUMANITIES AND THE “BASIC” SCIENCES
01/10/2013 RESEARCH OR DOCTORATE-GRANTING UNIVERSITIES Hernan Chaimovich 6 Doctorate-granting Universities. Includes institutions that awarded at least 20 research doctoral degrees during the update year (excluding doctoral-level degrees that qualify recipients for entry into professional practice, such as the JD, MD, PharmD, DPT, etc.). Excludes Special Focus Institutions and Tribal Colleges. RU/VH: Research Universities (very high research activity) RU/H: Research Universities (high research activity) DRU: Doctoral/Research Universities
01/10/2013 SCIENCE IS (ALSO) A PRACTICAL AGENT Hernan Chaimovich 7 As a practical agent science is a source of power. KNOWLEDGE WILL FOREVER GOVERN IGNORANCE: AND A PEOPLE WHO MEAN TO BE THEIR OWN GOVERNOURS, MUST ARM THEMSELVES WITH THE POWER WHICH KNOWLEDGE GIVES. President James Madison, 1822, USA. Entrance to the James Madison Building of the Library of Congress
01/10/2013 Hernan Chaimovich 14 Alice: Can you tell me which route should I take? The Cat: That depends on where you want to go. Alice: I do not know where I want to go. The Cat: Then it does not matter what route you take. Lewis Carroll 1865
01/10/2013 PUBLICAÇÕES, DRES E MESTRES Hernan Chaimovich
01/10/2013 BRAZILIAN PUBLICATIONS ARE PRODUCED BY A LIMITED NUMBER OF UNIVERSITIES Hernan Chaimovich 10 Web of Science DocumentsImpact Relative to World InstitutionTotalIntl OnlyTotalIntl --BRAZIL TOTALS ,741,69 UNIV SAO PAULO ,082,25 UNIV FED RIO DE JANEIRO ,693,77 UNIV ESTADUAL PAULISTA ,013,04 UNIV ESTADUAL CAMPINAS ,821,50 UNIV FED MINAS GERAIS ,621,28 UNIV FED RIO GRANDE SUL ,691,19 UNIV FED SAO PAULO ,731,42 UNIV FED ABC ,349,31 UNIV FED SANTA CATARINA ,500,70 UNIV FED PARANA ,681,25 TOTAL % ref BRAZIL6887 Fonte InCites, 2012
01/10/2013 BRAZIL Hernan Chaimovich
01/10/2013 SPAIN Hernan Chaimovich
01/10/2013 CHINA Hernan Chaimovich
01/10/2013 PASTEUR QUADRANTS Hernan Chaimovich 14 Very populated Necessary Movements in a Research University
01/10/2013 INTERNATIONALIZATION IS IMPORTANT BECAUSE IT MAY FACILITATE THE NEEDED MOVEMENTS IN THE PASTEUR QUADRANT. INTERNATIONALIZATION IMPLIES IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF COLLABORATIVE PROGRAMS Hernan Chaimovich 15
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01/10/2013 INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION Hernan Chaimovich 17 Fonte Scimago
01/10/2013 CITES/PAPER AND COLLABORATION Hernan Chaimovich 18
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01/10/2013 THE CONTRIBUTION OF BRAZILIAN SCIENCE IS NOT BALANCED DISAGGREGATED DATA (ISI 2000 – 2008) Hernan Chaimovich 20 KeywordWorldBrazil% Brazil Airplanes32382,5 Amazonia ,7 Chagas ,3 Comp/Software ,5 Deep Sea Drilling52861,1 Ethanol (Ch&ChE) ,1 Hypertension ,0 Micelles ,9 Optical Fibers ,7 Plant Pathogen ,7 Sugarcane ,8 Synthesis ,3
01/10/2013 CAN LOCAL THEMES BE PUBLISHED IN HIGH IMPACT JOURNALS? PUBLICATIONS IN NATURE, SCIENCE E PNAS BY BRAZILIAN SCIENTISTS Hernan Chaimovich 21 NATURE 1995 PUMPING PLANTS 91
01/10/2013 NUMBER OF INDEXED PAPERS 22 Hernan Chaimovich
01/10/2013 IMPACT RELATIVE TO WORLD 23 Hernan Chaimovich
01/10/2013 WHY SHOULD THE BRAZILIAN TAXPAYER CONTINUE TO FUND RESEARCH? Hernan Chaimovich 25 Because: 1.- Contributing to universal knowledge makes Brazilians better able to determine their own destiny. This effort is in the sphere of universities rather than industry or the private sector. 2.- The more knowledge society obtains through the use of the scientific method, fairer and richer it becomes.
01/10/2013 INTERLUDE Hernan Chaimovich 26 A plural system of higher education includes research universities, but these are not the only part of the system. Technical Universities, Schools for Teachers of Elementary Education, Distance Education Institutions, Colleges of Accelerated Education, among other structures, should also be considered when attempting to expand the System of Public Higher Education. This strategy allowed in many countries, full coverage of higher education for all young people. In a PLURAL SYSTEM ALL parts have the same importance.
01/10/2013 THE TERM "WORLD CLASS UNIVERSITY" HAS BEEN USED GLOBALLY BY MINISTERS AND CHANCELLORS Hernan Chaimovich 27 What does World Class University mean? Does the term have a special meaning or is a tool of public relations? What criteria grants a university "World Class"status?
01/10/2013 RESEARCH UNIVERSITIES AND WORLD CLASS Hernan Chaimovich 28 John D. Rockefeller once asked Charles W. Eliot, president of Harvard University in the late nineteenth century, what would be necessary to create the equivalent of a world-class university. Eliot replied that it would require $ 50 million and 200 years. He was wrong. In the early twentieth century, the University of Chicago has become a world class institution in two decades, with little more than $ 50 million donated by the Rockefeller Foundation. The price of such an effort has since increased not only because of inflation, but also because of the increased complexity and cost of academic institutions today. The competition has also become much more fierce. Now, that may take longer, cost $ 500 million require intelligent leadership and very good luck.
01/10/2013 BUT Hernan Chaimovich 29 Many institutions can do better concentrating on building departments, institutes and schools world-class, especially in fields that are relevant to the national economy or regional or local society. Placing too much emphasis on achieving world-class status can impair a university or an academic system. You can divert energy and resources from more important and perhaps more realistic goals. You can create unrealistic expectations that can interfere with faculty and students and impair its performance.
01/10/2013 FEATURES OF A RESEARCH UNIVERSITY Hernan Chaimovich 30 Excellence in research; Academic freedom and an atmosphere of intellectual excitement; Adequate facilities for academic work to support university research and teaching, as well as its other functions, and support should be consistent and long term; The governance of the institution is essential. Academic Leadership at all levels
01/10/2013 ACADEMIC LEADERSHIP SHOULD BE ABLE TO OVERCOME OUTDATED AND/OR INCONVENIENT INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURES Hernan Chaimovich 31
01/10/2013 SOME DESIRABLE FEATURES Hernan Chaimovich 32 Research Universities develop world-class science and technology, but also culture, general education, knowledge and ability to understand what is happening in the country and the world. Research Universities form professionals, researchers, professors, diplomats, officials, politicians, journalists, historians..... Research Universities serve as a bridge of contact and communication between the country and the world, and benchmark quality and relevance for other institutions.
01/10/2013 IMPORTANT FACTORS IN A RESEARCH UNIVERSITY Hernan Chaimovich 33 Mary-Louise Kearney Director, UNESCO Forum on Higher Education Research and Knowledge
01/10/2013 GOVERNANCE Hernan Chaimovich 34 The general definition of governance refers to: the distribution of authority and functions among units within a larger entity the modes of communication and control between them the conduct of relations between the entity and the surrounding environment.
01/10/2013 GOVERNANCE Hernan Chaimovich 35 Research universities have a significant degree of internal self-government and an established tradition, often supported by statutes, ensuring that the academic community (including teachers generally, but sometimes students) have control over the central elements of academic life: the admission of students; the curriculum; the criteria for the award of degrees; the selection of new faculty members; the strategic direction of the institution's academic work
01/10/2013 TENSIONS IN BRASIL TODAY (1) Hernan Chaimovich 36 In the last decades significant changes have affected the number of missions of universities, particularly those related to research universities. The structure of public universities are facing dilemmas, as the state presses to the institution to continue: Training professionals, technicians, teachers and researchers; develop almost all the fundamental research; meet social demands, economic and industrial; and at the same time, increase the number of enrollments.
01/10/2013 TENSIONS TODAY (2) Hernan Chaimovich 37 These trends raise serious questions: how to ensure that Research Universities continue to make their unique contributions for basic research and critical disinterested reflection? how to keep the balance between research, education, training and knowledge transfer?
01/10/2013 SOME POSSIBLE CONCLUSIONS Hernan Chaimovich 38 The impact of Brazilian science and the number of scientists must grow; Growing with the quality requires that governance at Research Universities be academic; Assessment of graduate programs has to change; Looking at problems with "pedestrian" science is irrelevant; Science in Brazilian Research Universities must be related to frontiers, where science can also communicate with national needs; Internationalization and collaboration are essential