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Chapter 5 Reading Guide Review An Industrial Nation.

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1 Chapter 5 Reading Guide Review An Industrial Nation

2 Sand Creek Massacre-the killing of about 150 Cheyenne by the U.S. Army

3 Battle of Little Bighorn-battle between the Sioux and the U.S. cavalry; the last victory for the Sioux

4 Sitting Bull-Sioux leader at the Battle of Little Bighorn

5 George Armstrong Custer-U.S. cavalry commander at the Battle of Little Bighorn

6 Wounded Knee Massacre-the killing of about 300 Sioux men, women and children by Army troops

7 Chief Joseph-Nez Perce leader who tried to flee to Canada with his people

8 Geronimo-Apache leader who led many raids on the Arizona-Mexico border

9 Dawes Act-law that broke up some reservations and divided the land among individuals

10 Chisholm Trail-cattle trail that began in San Antonio and ended in Kansas

11 Homestead Act-law allowing any head of household over age 21 to claim 160 acres of land

12 1. Why did Native Americans believe that land should not be bought and sold? buffalo centered lives Buffalo migrated food, clothing, shelter, weapons and tools. free to move with buffalo Nat. Ams believed no man owned the land but was for everyone’s use.


14 2. What were names the two massacres of Native Americans? The Sand Creek Massacre Wounded Knee Massacre

15 3. What was the Dawes Act? The Dawes Act - 1887 broke up Indian reservations and sold the land. government sold the best land and gave the rest to the Indians.

16 4. How many acres of land could the head of a family claim under the Homestead Act? 160 acres

17 5. Who did the settlers on the Great Plains learn irrigation techniques from? Hispanic and Native American farmers

18 Govt. seized lands & forced them onto reservations Goal of govt. - break up Nat. Ams’ power and open up their lands for settlement Nat. Ams fought back Expansion vs. survival of their lifestyle I. Conflicts with Native Americans

19 Americanization - force Nat Ams to give up their way of life and language The Dawes Act = Americanization Geronimo and the Apaches left the reservation and began raiding settlements I. Conflicts with Native Americans cont.

20 mining camps into towns = overnight success aka Boom Towns Denver Colorado = Boom Town Jobs – Large-scale mining – Cattle ranching II. Mining and Ranching


22 sheep owners vs. cattle owners competed for grazing lands on the open range barbed wire led to fencing in animals and ended open range

23 Land available Conditions harsh water scarce III. Farmers on the Great Plains (Out West)

24 New technologies helped

25 eastern markets by Railroads RR trx made time zones Homestead Act boomed settlement

26 African Americans moved to escape Black Codes &Ku Klux Klan Exodusters – Af. Ams to Kansas for free land to former slaves III. Farmers on the Great Plains cont.

27 Known as the great land rush DIVERSITY – White – Black – European – Chinese

28 As native Americans gradually lost their battle for their lands in the West, settlers brought in new enterprises such as : mining, ranching, and farming.

29 Section 2: The Second Industrial Revolution

30 Entrepreneur-risk taker who starts a new business

31 Capitalism-economic system in which most businesses are privately owned

32 Laissez-faire-type of capitalism in which government does not interfere with business

33 Social Darwinism-belief that people in society compete for survival; the stronger people, businesses, and nations succeed and weaker ones fail

34 John D. Rockefeller-business leader who made a fortune in oil

35 Andrew Carnegie-business leader who made a fortune in steel

36 Cornelius Vanderbilt-business leader who made a fortune in railroads

37 George Pullman-business leader who made a fortune by designing and building sleeper cars for rail travel

38 Sherman Antitrust Act-law that made it illegal to form trusts that interfered with free trade; its goal was to limit the power of corporations.

39 Thomas Alva Edison-inventor of hundreds of useful items

40 Samuel Morse invented the telegraph; Morse code

41 Boston was the home to the nation’s first subway system.

42 1.What made producing steel faster and cheaper during the Second Industrial Revolution? A new process of producing steel called the Bessemer Process.

43 2. How did the railroads affect settlement of the West? Cut travel time from months to days. Railroads = towns. RR also promoted trade & jobs. time zones.

44 3. What is capitalism? A system where most businesses are privately owned.

45 4. What poor conditions led workers to form unions? Child labor Long hours Unhealthy conditions Low pay

46 5. Name some new inventions from this time period. Streetcars Subways Automobiles Airplanes Telegraph Telephone Typewriter Lightbulb Phonograph (record player) Motion picture camera and projector

47 I.Industry and Railroads Factories with steel = more production The Bessemer process Chinese Immigrants came to U.S. to work on the RR and find gold The Chinese Exclusion Act ended Chinese immigration for 10 years

48 II. The Rise of Big Business Entrepreneurs risk $$$ fierce competition in the market Corporation- business with the legal status of an individual. owned by people who buy stock board of directors make decisions.

49 Competition led corp.’s to form trusts (merged corp.’s A board of trustees ran the companies like a single corporation Rockefeller dominated the oil business (richest American Ever. Carnegie dominated the steel business





54 II. The Rise of Big Business cont. Department stores Many goods found at one store Rockefeller and Carnegie called “robber barons” b/c of their ruthless competitiveness

55 Social Darwinism only the strong survive in business POV #1....Poor are poor b/c they are weak. POV #2....Poor stay poor b/c of rich people manipulation.

56 III. Workers Organize low wages long hours unsafe working conditions no benefits

57 The Knights of Labor were the largest and one of the most important American labor organizations of the 1880s. goals of the Knights of Labor were eight-hour workdays, end of child labor equal pay for equal work

58 IV. Advances in Transportation and Communication Communication: telegraphs, telephones, and typewriters Transportation: Streetcars, subways, automobiles The growth of cities led to mass transit systems The nation’s first subway system was in Boston

59 Assembly Lines made mass production possible

60 Monopolies – one company gains complete control over an industry

61 Monopolies make corporations become very powerful. Drive up prices In 1890, The Sherman Antitrust Act made it illegal to form trusts that interfered with free trade.

62 Robber Barons vs. Captains of Industry? Destroyed competitors with tough tactics? or Use their business skills to strengthen the economy?

63 Oil makes gasoline and petroleum The new technology needed petro. by the 1900 it was the most valuable commodity


65 During the late 1800s, new technology and inventions led to the growth of Industry, the rise of big business, and revolutions in transportation and communication.

66 Life at the Turn of the Century Section 3 Ellis Island- opened in 1892 in New York for European Immigrants

67 Tenement-rundown apartment building

68 Settlement house-place where volunteers offered immigrants services such as language lessons and job training

69 Jane Addams-co-founder of Hull House, one of the first American settlement houses

70 Social gospel-idea that faith should be shown through good acts

71 Populist Party-political party that stood for farmers, labor leaders, and reformers against big business leaders The Interstate Commerce Act was passed to regulate railroads

72 Jim Crow laws-laws that created and enforced separation of African Americans and whites in public places

73 Lynching-murder of an individual by a group or mob

74 Booker T. Washington-civil rights leader who believed that African Americans should focus on farming and other useful skills to improve their situation

75 W.E.B. Du Bois-civil rights leader who believed that African Americans should push for full rights immediately

76 1.How many immigrants came to the US between 1880-1910? (Old Immigrants) about 18 million

77 2. What hardships did immigrants face? Difficult living conditions – tenements Low paying jobs poverty


79 3. Where could immigrants go for help? Explain. They could go to Settlement Houses. These offered services to immigrants such as language classes and job training.

80 Jane Addams – founded Hull House, a settlement house where immigrants could go for help

81 4. What did the Populist Party want? wanted political reform which included bank regulation gov. ownership of railroads unlimited coinage of silver to back money.

82 5. What are the names of two influential Civil Rights leaders. W.E.B. Du bois Booker T. Washington

83 Angel Island opened in 1910 in California for Asian Immigrants (New Immigrants)

84 Many Chinese immigrants came to California to find gold.

85 A new wave of immigrants came to America in the late 1800s and settled in rapidly changing cities, where corruption and discrimination were common.

86 Westward Expansion Rap

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