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CLASSICAL GREECE ANCIENT ROME UNIT THREE. GEOGRAPHY OF GREECE LOCATION – Southeastern Europe Made up many mountains, isolated valleys, small islands.

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Presentation on theme: "CLASSICAL GREECE ANCIENT ROME UNIT THREE. GEOGRAPHY OF GREECE LOCATION – Southeastern Europe Made up many mountains, isolated valleys, small islands."— Presentation transcript:


2 GEOGRAPHY OF GREECE LOCATION – Southeastern Europe Made up many mountains, isolated valleys, small islands

3 SEAS – link to the rest of the world 1. BLACK SEA - north 2. MEDITERRANEAN SEA - south 3. AEGEAN SEA - east 4. IONIAN SEA – west SEAS important to TRAVEL and TRADE Greeks lacked natural resources – timber, precious metals, and usable farmland

4 MOUNTAINS Covered three-fourths of Greece Divided Greece into different regions Communities developed independent political units called: CITY-STATES

5 CITY-STATES Main Political Unit in Ancient Greece Also known as POLIS POLIS made up of city and surrounding countryside Parts of POLIS included: ACROPOLIS – fortified hilltop for defense AGORA – central gathering spot in the city – marketplace, theatres


7 TYPES OF GOVERNMENT City-States had many different forms of government: 1. MONARCHY – rule by a king 2. ARISTOCRACY– rule by nobles 3. OLIGARCHY – rule by few powerful people 4.DEMOCRACY – rule by the people


9 EARLY GREECE Early important Greek city was Mycenae Mycenaeans fought a famous ten year war against the city of Troy Trojans kidnapped Helen wife of Greek king starting TROJAN WAR Without written records much of early Greek history was passed down through stories - most famous by Homer {Iliad, Odyssey}

10 ATHENS & SPARTA 2 most Important CITY-STATES in Greece were: ATHENS & SPARTA They both shared GREEK culture but developed different ways of life

11 SPARTA SPARTA built a MILITARY state – society revolved around PHYSICAL training and the MILITARY Spartan Government – OLIGARCHY (most had no VOICE – first loyalty/ DUTY was to Sparta Did not promote individual FREEDOM Little progress in the ARTS and SCIENCES

12 ATHENS 450 B.C. – Athens developed first DEMOCRACY Emphasized well-rounded EDUCATION – goal: sound MIND & BODY Ideal citizen – EDUCATED, LOYAL, willing to be involved in government Athenians also believed in STRONG healthy citizens

13 OLYMPICS Most famous sports festival – OLYMPIC Games Series of athletic competitions among city-states of Ancient Greece Games honored ZEUS {father of all Greek Gods/Goddesses} Games were held in OLYMPIA Records first kept track in 776 B.C. – Games ended in 394 A.D. {outlawed by the Romans} Held every four years (there were 292 Ancient Olympic Games) Basis for today’s modern day OLYMPIC GAMES

14 During the games - an Olympic Truce was enacted so that athletes could travel from their countries to the games in safety Prizes for winners were wreaths of laurel leaves Olympics also featured religious celebrations and artistic competitions Statue of Zeus at Olympia was counted as one of the seven wonders of the ancient world Running events, a pentathlon (consisting of a jumping event, discus and javelin throws, a foot race, and wrestling), boxing, wrestling, pankration, and equestrian

15 PERSIAN WARS Series of wars between GREECE and PERSIAN Empire Greeks lived in IONIA {located in Anatolia} – Persians conquer 498 - 493 B.C. - Athens helps Ionians rebel against Persians Persians win but King Darius vows revenge on Athens 490 B.C. Persians {25,000 men} sail across the AEGEAN to attack Athens Persians land at MARATHON

16 BATTLE AT MARATHON 10,000 Athenian Soldiers defeated the Persians WHY? Athenian fighting formation – PHALANX, better prepared/trained, better equipment/uniforms Persians lost 6,000 men; Athenians lost less than 200 men Athenian messenger – PHEIDIPPIDES – ran the 26 miles from Marathon to Athens to inform the city of the victory {According to legend Pheidippides then collapsed and died} This heroic act inspired the Marathon running race




20 BATTLE AT THERMOPYLAE 480 B.C. Persians assemble ENORMOUS army King Darius had died succeeded by son – XERXES Persians take different route to invade Greece – came to a narrow pass at THERMOPLYAE 7000 Greeks {led by 300 Spartans} stopped Persian advance for THREE days A traitor informs Persians about a secret path around the pass Spartans send rest of Greeks back to Athens – all are 300 were killed

21 Important – Spartans fierce RESISTANCE gave VALUABLE time to prepare for a decisive battle that would determine the outcome of the war. THEMISTOCLES – has Athenians evacuate the city – turn the war into a NAVAL battle Xerxes arrives in Athens – burns city {destroyed Parthenon} BATTLE AT THERMOPYLAE

22 The Greek victory at the battle of Salamis destroyed the Persian navy and forced Xerxes to retreat back to Asia. The final battle took place a year later in 479 B.C. when a full- strength Spartan led Greek army defeated the Persians at the battle of Plataea ending the Persian wars. END OF PERSIAN WARS







29 GOLDEN AGE OF GREECE After defeat of PERSIANS – Greece entered a “GOLDEN AGE” New heights in: DRAMA, POETRY, ARCHITECTURE, SCULPTURE, SCIENCE, PHILOSOPHY ATHENS leads the way in this “Golden Age” leader of Athens – PERICLES {ruled Athens from 460 – 429 B.C.}

30 GOALS OF PERICLES 1. Strengthen Athenian Democracy – introduced DIRECT democracy {citizens rule DIRECTLY not through representatives – had to be a citizen – women, slaves,males under 18 were not} 2. Hold & Strengthen the Empire – helped organize the Delian League to protect Greece 3. GLORIFY Athens – best example – rebuilding of PARTHENON {23,000 foot building honoring goddess ATHENA}



33 PELOPONNESIAN WAR 431 – 404 B.C. Athens grew in wealth, prestige, & power during the Golden Age Resulted in a CIVIL war between Athens and SPARTA Athens had a stronger navy - Sparta stronger army Turning point in the war – plague struck Athens killing Pericles SPARTA was victorious but unable to UNITE all of Greece Main Impact of the war – weakened Greece as a whole Left it vulnerable and allowed it to be CONQUERED



36 GREEK PHILOSOPHERS After the war many began to question values Greek Thinkers tried to use OBSERVATION and REASON to understand why things happened Greeks called these thinkers Philosophers “lovers of WISDOM” There were 3 famous Greek Philosophers: 1. Socrates 2. Plato 3. Aristotle




40 ALEXANDER’S EMPIRE The Peloponnesian War weakened Greece – Macedonia {north of Greece} invaded in 338B.C. –took control under King Philip II 336 B.C. – Philip is murdered at his daughter’s wedding Philip’s 20 year old son Alexander takes over Alexander built a huge empire that included: *GREECE *PERSIA *EGYPT *parts of INDIA Alexander becomes known as ALEXANDER THE GREAT

41 ALEXANDER THE GREAT Alexander had been a student of ARISTOTLE Alexander earned the title "the Great" due to his success as a military commander He never lost a battle - despite typically being outnumbered This was due to use of terrain - phalanx and cavalry tactics - bold strategy - fierce loyalty of his troops

42 WAR WITH PERSIA Three Important Battles in war with Persia: 334 B.C. Battle at Granicus 333 B.C. Battle at Issue 332 B.C. Battle at Gaugamela Alexander The Great defeats Persian King Darius III 332 B.C. conquered Egypt 326 B.C. reached India 323 B.C. Alexander dies at the age of 32





47 HELLENISTIC CULTURE Alexander wanted: meld conquered cultures with Greeks “BEST of the BEST of the EAST with the WEST” {Alexander himself took a Persian wife} Period of mixing cultures (cultural DIFFUSION) became known as the HELLENISTIC AGE HELLENISTIC CULTURE mixture of: Egyptian, Greek, Persian, Indian Center of Hellenistic world: ALEXANDRIA, Egypt

48 HELLENISTIC ACCOMPLISHMENTS ASTRONOMY – Sun is bigger than Earth MATHEMATICS – Euclid’s Geometry; Archimedes’ value of pi, Pythagorean Theorem PHYSICS – use of lever/pulley PHILSOPHY – Stoicism: people should live virtuous lives ART – sculpture: Colossus of Rhodes



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