People & Key Terms Indo-Europeans: a group of semi-nomadic people who spoke similar languages and migrated from southern Russia to the Indian subcontinent around 1700 BC. Steppes: arid grasslands Technique: method or way for performing a task. Nebuchadnezzar II : the Chaldean king of Babylon from c. 605 to 562 BC. He was recognized to be a fierce warrior and a wonderful builder; he famously rebuilt Babylon into a magnificent city; by him, Babylon was famed for its spectacular hanging gardens, which are said to have been built for his wife.
What military advantages helped the Hittites establish an empire in Asia Minor? The Hittites is a warlike Indo-European tribe, developed in Southwest Asia. About 2000 BC, they settled in Asia Minor, which is now Turkey. The Hittites military might came from their horse drawn war chariot. Three soldiers can ride in a horse drawn chariot because: one fought, one steered the horses, and held shields in defense. They had mastered ironworking techniques which helped with their wars.
The Assyrians briefly gained power in the 1300s BC and built an empire, but it lasted very little. Then about 900 BC the Assyrians regained their strength and built a new empire, which included all of Mesopotamia as well as parts of Asia Minor and Egypt. Assyria’s power relied on its military and frequent warfare had hardened Assyria into a fierce warrior society. It’s army also had a cavalry, all armed with iron weapons. The Assyrian soldiers were also masters of siege warfare and used battering rams to pound through city walls or dug beneath the walls to weaken them. Assyrian warfare also relied on terror to awe enemies and to control conquered areas. To spread fear, the Assyrians often killed or maimed captives. As the Assyrian Empire grew it became harder to control and the Chaldeans, who lived in southern Mesopotamia, and the Medes, who lived in what is now Iran, joined forces. In 612 BC they captured and torched Nineveh. With its capital and government gone, the Assyrian empire came to a sudden end. WHAT EVENTS LED TO THE RISE AND FALL OF THE ASSYRIAN EMPIRE?
What events led to the rise and fall of the Chaldean empire? Formed their empire over much of southern and western Assyria. The old city of Babylon became their capital. Nebuchadnezzar II brought beauty & glory to the city through war and architecture. The Chaldeans fought the Egyptians and the Jews (captured Jerusalem). Designed a lunar calendar and made other advances in astronomy. --------- The Persians unexpectedly conquered Babylon in 539 BC.
Phoenicia was made up of several city-states of fallen empires. This area lay at the western end of the Fertile Crescent, long the Mediterranean (or modern day Lebanon). Agriculture was difficult in the rugged hills and mountains, and resources for farming were limited. Therefore, the Phoenicians favored trade and sailing for a living. Later they founded colonies along their routes (e.g. Carthage). The Phoenicians elaborated an alphabet that has developed into our modern alphabet. Phoenician traders spread this alphabet from port to port.