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Disruptive Demographics and North Carolina’s Education Challenges December 2012 James H. Johnson, Jr. Frank Hawkins Kenan Institute of Private Enterprise.

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Presentation on theme: "Disruptive Demographics and North Carolina’s Education Challenges December 2012 James H. Johnson, Jr. Frank Hawkins Kenan Institute of Private Enterprise."— Presentation transcript:

1 Disruptive Demographics and North Carolina’s Education Challenges December 2012 James H. Johnson, Jr. Frank Hawkins Kenan Institute of Private Enterprise Kenan-Flagler Business School University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

2 OVERVIEW Demographic Trends Challenges & Opportunities Discussion

3 what December 2012 CENSUS 2010 will REVEAL

4 6 DISRUPTIVE TRENDS The South Rises – Again The Browning of America Marrying Out is “In” The Silver Tsunami is About to Hit The End of Men? Cooling Water from Grandma’s Well… and Grandpa’s Too!

5 The South Continues To Rise The South Continues To Rise...Again!

6 SOUTH’S SHARE OF U.S. NET POPULATION GROWTH, SELECTED YEARS, Years U.S. Absolute Population Change South’s Absolute Population Change South’s Share of Change ,974,129 8,468,30327% ,123,138 9,339,45533% ,886,12815,598,27930% ,497,94722,650,56350% ,035,66529,104,81449%

7 U.S. POPULATION CHANGE BY REGION, Region 2010 Population Absolute Population Change, Percent Population Change, U.S.309,050,81626,884,9729.5% Northeast55,417,3111,753,9783.3% Midwest66,972,8872,480,9983.0% South114,555,74414,318, % West72,256,1838,774, % North Carolina9,535,4831,486, %

8 SHARES OF NET POPULATION GROWTH BY REGION, Region Absolute Population ChangePercent of Total UNITED STATES26,884, NORTHEAST1,753, MIDWEST2,480, SOUTH14,318, WEST8,774,

9 NET MIGRATION TRENDS, NortheastMidwestSouthWest Total-1,032-2,008+2, Black Hispanic Elderly Foreign born = Net Import= Net Export

10 GROSS AND NET MIGRATION FOR THE SOUTH, The Region DomesticForeign YearsInOutNetInOutNet ,125,0963,470,431654,665268,619132,382136, ,874,4143,477,899396,525232,501132,201100,300 Florida DomesticForeign YearsInOutNetInOutNet ,053630,051182,00241,74524,10817, ,931668,087-13,15633,09532,0941,001

11 STATE SHARE OF SOUTH’S NET GROWTH, Region/StateAbsolute ChangeState’s Share The South14,318, % Texas 4,293, % Florida 2,818, % Georgia 1,501, % North Carolina 1,486, % Other Southern States 4,218, %

12 NC COUNTIES WITH THE LARGEST ABSOLUTE POPULATION GAINS,

13 NC COUNTIES EXPERIENCING POPULATION DECLINE,

14 Counties with Biologically Declining Populations, 2009

15 THE “BROWNING” OF NORTH CAROLINA

16 IMMIGRATION POPULATION, Source: Center for Immigration Studies; U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey

17 SHARES OF NET POPULATION GROWTH, Race Absolute Change Percent of Total Total24,834, Non-Hispanic12,057, White4,088, Black3,276, American Indian256, Asian Asian3,233, Native Hawaiian Native Hawaiian79, Two or More Races Two or More Races1,123, Hispanic12,776, October

18 NORTH CAROLINA POPULATION GROWTH BY NATIVITY, RACE, AND ETHNICITY,

19 NORTH CAROLINA FOREIGN BORN POPULATION GROWTH,

20 CONTRIBUTIONS OF NON-WHITES & HISPANICS TO NC POPULATION CHANGE, Area Absolute Population Change Percent Non- White* Percent Hispanic All Counties1,486, Tier 1 Counties69, Tier 2 Counties327, Tier 3 Counties1,088, Source: Census 2000 and Census *Non-whites include Blacks, Hispanics, American Indians and Alaskan Natives, Asians, Native Hawaiians & Pacific Islanders, and people of two or more races.

21 is “In” Marrying Out October

22 INTERMARRIAGE TREND, % Married Someone of a Different Race/Ethnicity October

23 INTERMARRIAGE TYPES Newly Married Couples in 2008 October

24 OUT-MARRIAGE PATTERNS BY RACE AND GENDER, NC Hispanic Men21.4Hispanic Women21.6Black Men9.4Black Women3.4 White Female18.0White Male16.4White Female6.0White Male0.6 Black Female1.5Black Male3.7Hispanic Female1.4Hispanic Male1.9 Asian Female0.7Asian Male0.2Asian Female0.5Asian Male0.1 Other Female1.2Other Male1.3Other Female1.5Other Male0.9 White Men3.3White Women3.4Asian Men12.3Asian Women31.4 Hispanic Female1.1Hispanic Male1.2White Female10.0Hispanic Male1.5 Black Female0.3Black Male1.1Black Female0.6White Male25.8 Asian Female0.9Asian Male0.2Hispanic Female0.5Black Male2.7 Other Female1.0Other Male0.9Other Female1.2Other Male1.3

25 MEDIAN AGE & FERTILITY RATES FOR FEMALES IN NC, Demographic GroupMedian Age Fertility/1000 women* All Females White, Not Hispanic Black American Indian & Alaskan Native Asian Native Hawaiian & Pacific Islander Some other race Two or more races Hispanic Native Born Foreign Born Source: American Community Survey *Women 15 to 50 with births in past 12 months

26 RELATIVE DISTRIBUTION OF U.S. BIRTHS BY RACE / ETHNICITY Race/Ethnicity White66%50%49.6% Blacks17%16%15.0% Hispanics15%26%26.0% Other2%8%9.4% Source: Johnson and Lichter (2010); Tavernise (2011).

27 CHANGE IN THE RACE/ETHNIC COMPOSITION OF NC PUBLIC SCHOOLS, Group 2009 Enrollment 2000 Enrollment Absolute Change Percent Change Share of Net Change Total1,427,9601,268,422159, % AI/AN 20,378 18,651 1, % Black 444, ,712 51, % Asian 35,140 23,576 11, % Hispanic 152,605 56,232 96, % White 774, ,251- 1, Source: DPI, The Statistical Profile Online

28 NC’s SILVER TSUNAMI

29 U.S. POPULATION CHANGE BY AGE, Age2009 Absolute Change Percentage Change <25104,960,2505,258, ,096,278-1,898, ,379,43916,977, ,570,5904,496, TOTAL307,006,55024,834, October

30 U.S. POPULATION TURNING 50, 55, 62, AND 65 YEARS OF AGE, ( ) Age 50 Age 55 Age 62 Age 65 Average Number/Day12,34411,5419,2218,032 Average Number/Minute October

31 DEPENDENCY RATIOS IN THE AMERICAN SOUTH Source: Census 2010

32 NC ABSOLUTE POPULATION CHANGE BY AGE, AgeAll Counties Tier 3 Counties Tier 2 Counties Tier 1 Counties All Ages1,486,1701,088,946327,859 69,365 <25 449, ,818 85,481- 5, , , ,139-49, , ,705199,101 88, , ,175 79,416 36,440

33 DEPENDENCY RATES FOR SELECTED SOUTHERN STATES, Dependency Rate Georgia 67.4 Counties with Population Decline (31)100.4 Counties Growing % (44)75.2 Counties Growing 10% or more (84)62.6 Dependency Rate North Carolina 68.7 Tier Tier Tier Dependency Rate Alabama Counties with Greatest % Loss Counties with Greatest % Gain 67.1

34

35 COOLING WATERS FROM GRANDMA’S WELL And Grandpa’s Too!

36 Children Living in Non-Grandparent and Grandparent Households, Household TypeAbsolute Number 2010 Absolute Change Percent Change All74,7182, No Grandparents67, Both Grandparents 2, Grandmother Only 1, Grandfather Only October

37 Children Living in Non-Grandparent and Grandparent-Headed Households by Presence of Parents, 2010 Household Type All Children (in thousands) Living with Both Parents Living with Mother Only Living with Father Only Living with Neither parent All74, %23.1%3.4%4.0% No Grandparents 67, %21.2%3.3%2.1% Both Grandparents 2, %40.6%5.2%36.1% Grandmother Only 1, %48.4%4.5%33.2% Grandfather Only %45.9%4.4%23.6% October

38 GRANDPARENTS LIVING WITH GRANDCHILDREN AGES 18 AND YOUNGER IN NORTH CAROLINA Percent Change Total Households with Grandparents 146,875175, Grandparents Responsible for Grandchildren 84,232109, Child's Parents in Household 43,67967,

39 The End of Men?

40 FEMALE WORKFORCE REPRESENTATION

41 JOBS LOST/GAINED BY GENDER DURING 2007 (Q4) – 2009 (Q3) RECESSION Industry WomenMen Construction -106,000-1,300,000 Manufacturing -106,000-1,900,000 Healthcare +451, ,100 Government +176, ,000 Total -1,700,000-4,700,000

42 THE PLIGHT OF MEN Today, three times as many men of working age do not work at all compared to Selective male withdrawal from labor market—rising non-employment due largely to skills mismatches, disabilities & incarceration. The percentage of prime-aged men receiving disability insurance doubled between 1970 (2.4%) and 2009 (4.8%). Since 1969 median wage of the American male has declined by almost $13,000 after accounting for inflation. After peaking in 1977, male college completion rates have barely changed over the past 35 years.

43 COLLEGE CLASS OF 2010 DEGREEMALEFEMALEDIFFERENCE Associate’s293,000486,000193,000 Bachelor’s702,000946,000244,000 Master’s257,000391,000134,000 Professional46,80046, Doctor’s31,50032,9001,400 TOTAL1,330,3001,902,300572,000

44 ENROLLMENT IN 2 YEAR COLLEGES, 2009 Area Total Enrollment Full Time Enrollment (%) Male Enrollment (%) Black Enrollment (%) U.S.20,966, Southeast Region 4,731, North Carolina 574, NC- 2 Yr Colleges 253,

45 UNC SYSTEM STUDENT ENROLLMENT BY GENDER AND TYPE OF INSTITUTION, 2010 Type of Institution Total Enrollment Male Enrollment Percent Male UNC System 175,28176,95344 Majority Serving 139,25063,40346 Minority Serving 36,03113,55038 HBUs 29,86511,19137

46 Average EOG Scores Gender scores are averages of 6 LEAs (Bertie, Bladen, Halifax, Duplin, Northampton and Pamlico)

47 Average EOG Scores Gender scores are averages of 6 LEAs (Bertie, Bladen, Halifax, Duplin, Northampton and Pamlico)

48 Average EOC Scores Gender scores are averages of 6 LEAs (Bertie, Bladen, Halifax, Duplin, Northampton and Pamlico)

49 EOC Composite Scores Gender scores are averages of 6 LEAs (Bertie, Bladen, Halifax, Duplin, Northampton and Pamlico)

50 Male-Female Presence Disparity Graph shows total number of male and female students tested of 6 LEAs (Bertie, Bladen, Duplin, Halifax, Northampton, and Pamlico)

51 High School Graduation Rates Avg. graduation rates of 6 LEAs (Bertie, Bladen, Halifax, Duplin, Northampton and Pamlico)

52 The Minority Male Challenge

53 Third Grade EOG Reading Test Pass Rates For Males by Race/Ethnicity

54 Third Grade EOG Math Test Pass Rates for Males by Race/Ethnicity

55 Eighth Grade EOG Reading Test Pass Rates for Males by Race/Ethnicity

56 Eighth Grade EOG Math Test Pass Rates for Males by Race/Ethnicity

57 ...but Challenges Abound DIVERSITY RULES September

58 September

59 Percent of High School Graduates Requiring Remedial Course Work

60 ...but insufficient...but insufficient Education is Necessary

61 AVERAGE SHARE OF LONG-TERM UNEMPLOYMENT BY EDUCATION Education % Change Less Than High School24.7%23.7% High School Graduate40.6%34.3%-6.3 Some College20.7%24.4%3.7 Bachelor’s Degree or More 14.0%17.6%3.6

62 AVERAGE SHARE OF LONG-TERM UNEMPLOYMENT BY OCCUPATION Occupation % Change Blue Collar40.5%31.6%-8.9 Service Occupation14.3%16.7%2.4 White Collar38.5%44.4%5.9

63 THE LONG-TERM UNEMPLOYED, 2009 PROFESSION % OF ALL JOBLESS WORKERS Architecture & Engineering41.2 Management39.0 Community & Social Services Occupations36.1 Installation, Maintenance & Repair Work34.9 Production Occupations33.4

64 BACHELOR’S DEGREE HOLDERS (UNDER AGE 25) WHO WERE JOBLESS OR UNDEREMPLOYED YearPercent

65 CHANGE IN INCIDENCE OF POVERTY BY EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT IN NC, , Educational Attainment Percent Change Less than High School 253,304276, % High School Graduate 216,667234, % Some College, Associate Degree 136,185186, % Bachelor’s degree or higher 49,082 57, % Source: American Community Survey

66 THE COMPETITIVE TOOL KIT Analytical Reasoning Entrepreneurial Acumen Contextual Intelligence Soft Skills/Cultural Elasticity Agility and Flexibility

67 Implications for Workforce Planning and Development Managing transition from the “graying” to the “browning” of America. Competition for talent will be fierce – and global. Successful recruitment and retention will hinge on your ability to effectively manage the full nexus of “diversity” issues. September

68 MOVING FORWARD Higher Education must become more actively engaged in K-12 Education. Improve Male Education Outcomes. Embrace immigrants. Develop effective strategies to address childhood hunger Establish stronger ties with business to ensure that students graduate with the requisite skills to compete in an ever-changing global economy. Prepare students for the freelance economy.

69 GOP Presidential Candidate Share of Minority Vote YearHispanic/LatinoAsian %42% %33% %26% November

70 THE END

71 Supporting Slides For Discussion Only

72 The Freelance Economy

73 THE ONLINE MARKET PLACE Guru.com Elance.com Odesk.com Freelancer.com

74 DISTRIBUTION OF FREELANCE ENTREPRENEURS

75 FREELANCERS WITHIN 30 MILE RADIUS OF ZIP: (N= 1,578) Programming & Databases (287)Illustration & Art (50) Writing, Editing & Translation (281)Photography & Videography (41) Administrative Support (217)Sales & Marketing (26) Website & Ecommerce (153)Broadcasting (25) Graphic Design & Multimedia (148)Finance & Accounting (22) Business Consulting (101)Legal (18) Networking & Telephone Systems (76) ERP & CRM (14) Engineering & CAD (57)Fashion & Interior Design (8) Marketing & Communications (54)

76 November Global Scholars Academy

77 December Global Scholars Academy Lab School Youth Psychological Services Underprivileged Youth Family Management Technological Innovations in Learning TutorsRemediation in the BasicsMentors Common Core Course of Study Health and Wellness Entrepreneurship & Financial Literacy Global Awareness Character Education After-school/Extended Day Cultural Enrichment Fine ArtsFitnessSoft SkillsNetworking Preparatory School

78 December Global Scholars Academy Lab School Youth Psychological Services Underprivileged Youth Family Management Technological Innovations in Learning TutorsRemediation in the BasicsMentors Common Core Course of Study Health and Wellness Entrepreneurship & Financial Literacy Global Awareness Character Education After-school/Extended Day Cultural Enrichment Fine ArtsFitnessSoft SkillsNetworking Preparatory School

79 The North Carolina Minority Male Bridge to Success Project

80 African-American Male Strategic Interventions Services Pre-K Intervention 4 th Grade Success Intervention Disconnected Youth Intervention Saturday College Prep Academy College Retention Intervention Psychological Services / Family Supports XXXXX Enriched Standard Course of Study X Technology-Enhanced Remediation XXXXX Traditional Tutoring / Mentoring XXXXX Cultural Enrichment / Soft-Skills Training XXXXX NetworkingXXXXX

81 Successful Pathways to Optimal Development Community Low Quality Caregivers Affection Mediating Institutions Protection Optimal Development School Males of Color Neighborhood Violence/Lack of Safety Harsh/Inconsistent/ Ineffective Discipline Social, Cultural & Intellectual Capital Networks Family Fragile Self Identity Correction Concentration Effects Target GroupStressorsBridges Coping Mechanisms Outcomes

82 Recruitment Strategy for GSA Bridge to Success Program for Black Boys 0-8 GSA/BSP for Black Boys 0-8 GSA/ Primary Colors Early Childhood Learning Center GSA K-8 Charter School Education Outcomes for Program and Control Groups Target Population Pre-K Interventions K-8 Interventions Outcomes

83 Logic Model For Young Boys Of Color Early Intervention (0 To 8 Years Old) Inputs  Boys of color ages 0-8 in attendance at GSA  Families of boys of color at GSA  Teaching staff, administrators, and volunteers at GSA Activities to Improve Coping Mechanisms  Conduct parent focus groups, support groups, and home-visits and disseminate information specific supporting boys of color pro-social growth and development  Engage boys in high-interest oral language, pre-academic and social skills activities (in-school and afterschool) that support their development of healthy racial identities  Develop an incentive-based savings account for each boy  Provide professional development to educators through expert practitioners.  Assess curriculum and materials to ensure that is interests and challenges boys to excel  Leveraging corporate, community and university partnerships to inform design, implementation, and longitudinal evaluation  Leverage resources to secure funding for GSA Outputs  Increase parents and caregivers’ support for their boys’ pro-social growth and development  Strengthen boys oral language, pre-academic and social skills, and racial identity  Concretize families ability to help finance their boys’ college matriculation  Strengthen teachers’ and administrators ability to engage, motivate, teach, and develop character in young boys of color. Outcomes Problems Boys of color are more likely to experience early and persistent trauma and violence Boys of color are less likely to have nurturing caregivers/parents and qualified educators Boys of color are less likely to be prepared for school and more likely to receive inadequate/ inappropriate educational services  Healthy males with strong academic, social, and character identities  Families that are more emotionally-secure, knowledgeable, and engaged with their boys, and have stronger social networks Impact Optimal Development  Healthy and prepared to succeed in school  Positive feelings about school, college matriculation, and future success  Strong and adaptive self- efficacy and self- regulation  Above average performance on cognitive. Behavioral, and emotional assessments  Advisory panel of academic scholars and practitioners  Technologically enhanced learning partnerships (SAS, IBM, Carnegie Mellon, etc)  Enduring community & university partnerships to inform design, implementation and evaluation  Resources and funding partners for boys' higher Education  Formalization of corporate, community and university partnerships  Evaluation of outcomes and implementation  Teachers better able to teach boys of color using high boy- interest activities and materials  Increase the number of activities, lessons, and materials of high interest to boys  Use evaluation data to improve subsequent programming and assess program impact  Each family has a college savings plan for their boys

84 Logic Model For Minority Male College Preparatory Academy Grades 9-12th Problems - Minority males are less likely to possess positive social networks (from either their peers or lack of male presence in household) - Minority males are more likely to experience or witness trauma and violence -Minority males are more likely to experience disproportionate school disciplinary sanctions - Minority males are behind their peers academically and more prone to disconnecting from school altogether Inputs - Males of color in Grades Families/guardians - Teaching staff, administrators, guidance counselors mentors, coaches - Advisory panel of academic scholars and practitioners to inform training curricula and professional development activities - Leverage technologically enhanced learning partnerships (SAS, IBM, Carnegie Mellon, etc) - Resources and funding partners for boys' higher Education Strategies -Offer courses and curricula that prepare students for college-level work and ensure students understand what constitutes a college- ready curriculum -Utilize measures throughout high school to assess baseline college “preparedness” and assist them on overcoming deficiencies as identified -Surround students with adults and peers who build and support college going and career aspirations Provide comprehensive life/skills training to increase cultural elasticity, enhance understanding of intrests and career aptitudes, character development & personal branding -Provide professional development to educators through expert practitioners. Increase household financial capability and opportunities to practice money management -Leveraging partnerships to inform design, implementation and evaluation Outputs Concretize families ability to help finance their boys’ college matriculation Strengthen teachers’ and administrators ability to engage, motivate, teach, and develop character in young boys of color. Use evaluation data to improve subsequent programming and assess program impact Formalization of corporate, community and university partnerships Concrete evaluation design and plan for outcomes and implementation Teachers better able to teach boys of color Outcomes Students possess the prerequisite academic skills necessary to meet college rigor standards Students possess strong cognitive skills and an ability to think analytically Students strong self management skills, are organized and manage time wisely Students possess a dense social network of peers and mentors Student possess goal-oriented strategies for managing their personal finances.

85 Logic Model For Minority Male College Retention Problems - College unreadiness - Institutional Culture Shock - Poor Coping Skills - Inadequate academic and social supports - Loan use and abuse - Parental/Family obligations - Career path insecurity Inputs - Program staff - Faculty - Student Affairs - Housing/Resident Life - Academic Affairs Staff - Student Organizations - Campus Health Services - Family Support - Community Partners - Student Peers Strategies - First-year Transition - Academic Advising - Assessment/Screening - Career Planning/Placement - Learning Assistance - Mentoring - Faculty Development - Financial Aid Navigation - Co-Curricular Services - Mental Health/Coping Support Outputs - Less first-year transition - Timely major selection - Appropriate major selection - Efficient course selection - Realistic professional goals - Higher student GPAs - Stronger professional networks - Less attrition in “gateway courses” - Less finance driven attrition - Stronger social support - Greater resiliency - Early warning Outcomes - Greater retention rates - Higher graduation rates - More career ready graduates - Less debt and more financially stable - Entrepreneurial acumen - Possess a global perspective


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