Presentation on theme: "Topic: Industrialization and Progressivism ( )"— Presentation transcript:
1Topic: Industrialization and Progressivism (1877-1920) Unit 1Topic: Industrialization and Progressivism ( )Ignited by post-Civil War demand and fueled by technological advancements, large-scale industrialization began in the United States during the late 1800s. Growing industries enticed foreign immigration, fostered urbanization, gave rise to the American labor movement and developed the infrastructure that facilitated the settling of the West. A period of progressive reform emerged in response to political corruption and practices of big business.
2Chapter 1: The Rise of Corporations Content Statement: The rise of corporations, heavy industry, mechanized farming and technological innovations transformed the American economy from an agrarian to an increasingly urban industrial society.Expectations For Learning: Analyze how the rise of corporations, heavy industry, mechanized farming and technological innovations transformed the American economy from an agrarian to an increasingly urban industrial society.
3Section 1: Rise of Corporations and Heavy Industry Content Elaboration: Industrialization in the United States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries was characterized by the rise of corporations and heavy industry, which transformed the American economy. It marked a shift from a predominance of agricultural workers to a predominance of factory workers. It marked a shift from rural living to urban living, with more people living in crowded and unsanitary conditions.
4IndustrializationWhat do you know about industrialization? (on your own)Share with one or two other peopleAs a class, what do we know???????
6Effects of Industrialization During the 19th Century Q: What is Industrialization?A: When workers and immigrants from other countries moved into urban areas (cities) and began to work in the factories. This began in the US in the 1870’s.*During the years after the Civil War, people began to move to the cities.1850’s: 1 in 5 people lived in the city1915: half of all people lived in the city
7Rural vs. Urban vs. Suburban rural: farm areaurban: city areasuburban: area located on the outskirts of the cities
8Effect #1: Cities Grew 1. Farmers move to the city a. Find jobs b. Have better lives2. Immigrants come to the citiesa. Most immigrants settled in the cityb. Settled together in the cities3. This created many problemsa. overcrowdingb. poor housingc. poor sanitation/dirtyd. rise in crime
9Rural and Urban U.S. Population, 1860, 1900, 1920
10Effect #2: US economy became the best 1. immigrants worked AND bought stuff2. improvements in transportation and communication3. better technology: machines4. new business processes: modern corporation5. tariffs
11Effect #3: Workplace changes 1. Before IR: small business. Everyone knew each other2. During IR: large factories and Corporations. Many people operated machines
12Working Conditions Change 1. fierce competition for jobs (immigrants, child labor2. layoffs3. low pay, long hours, unsafe conditions4. dangerous machines5. dark and dangerous factories6. little or no benefits, unemployment, or disability7. no worker’s compensation8. Women and Child Workersa. womenincreasedhad to work to make end’s meatmade 1/2 of what men madeb. childrenworked for less moneydangerous conditionschild labor laws passed (ignored at first)
13Effect #4: Living Conditions 1. housing: tenement houses--crowded apartment buildings where many people lived during the Industrial Revolution2. no or poor sewers/water3. dirty and diseases spread4. high crime
14Industrialization and the Rise of the Modern Corporation Q: What is an entrepreneur?A. Someone who starts up their own businessQ: What is a corporation?A: New businesses needed money (capital) to start up. A corporation was one way to get that capital. Corporations sell shares of their business, called stock, to the public. If the company does well, stockholders earn a profit.Examples: railroads, Standard Oil, General Electric
15Businesses CompeteBusiness leaders looked for ways to make more profitA. wanted less competitionB. Examples: Oil, coal, and steel industries1. Create monopoly (when there is no competition in a business) or trustscombined many small companies into 1 large company = less competition = charge higher prices = more $$$$$$$$$
16Examples of Monopolies 1. J. Pierpont Morgan• A great organizer• Bought many businesses, including Carnegie Steel• Controlled many RR’s• Worth billions• Banking mogul
17Andrew Carnegie • Childhood A. Poor B. Educated himself C. Became millionaire• Steel monopoly• Gave a lot awayA. CollegesB. Libraries• Pittsburgh
18John Rockefeller and Standard Oil Company A. ambitiousB. great organizerC. Cleveland1. great place to start oil businessby a lakemany railroadsD. Monopoly in oil refineries1. 1st in Cleveland2. bought others inother areas
19Laissez-Faire Q: What is laissez-faire? A: The government allows business owners to do as they chooseLaissez-faire allowed for:1. no gov. regulation of business2. wages and working conditions were unregulated3. no environmental regulations to control pollution4. allowed for the rise of monopolies
20Do You Agree With Laissez-Faire??? ProsGov. can’t tell owner what to doBusiness owner would make more moneyConsGov. could shut business down if they did bad things (unsafe, pollution, etc.)have to make business saferbetter working conditions (higher pay, shorter hours, insurance, etc)
21OGT Multiple Choice_____ (Practice Test Booklet, 2005) Which of the following was not an effect of the Industrial Revolution?A. An increasing number of people worked on family farmsB. An increasing number of people lived in citiesC. An increasing number of people worked in factoriesD. An increasing number of people left the family farms
22OGT Multiple Choice_____ (Base Test March 2005) One effect of industrialization in the United States in the late 19th century wasA. a decrease in immigration to the United StatesB. an increase in demand for handicraft goodsC. a decrease in child laborD. an increase in urbanization
23OGT Short AnswerWhy did corporations favor laissez-faire policies?
24Section 2: Improved Farming Technology Content Elaboration: Mechanized farming also transformed the American economy. Production was made more efficient as machines replaced human labor.
25On the Farm Technology: modernized the farms 1. Railroads Transport goodsTranscontinental—1869 (railroad that stretched all the way across the United States)By 1900, several transcontinental RR’s1880: 93,000 miles of track1900: 193,000 miles of track
27New Invention Help Farmers a refrigerated railroad carsb. McCormick reaperc. thresherd. steel-tipped plowe. combines (reap, thresh, and clean grain)f. fertilizer***All of these allowed farmers to grow more crops with less labor in a short period of time. Food could also be transported all over the country!
29OGT Extended ResponseThe Industrial Revolution brought about major changes not only in cities, but in rural America as well. Explain two ways farming changed as a result of the Industrial Revolution. (4 points)
30OGT Extended ResponseHow did agricultural tools and machines invented in the 19th century make it possible for American cities to grow rapidly in the late 1800’s. (4 points)
31OGT Extended Response_____ (Base Test March 2005) During the Industrial Revolution of the late 19th century, farmers in the United States worked to increase their land holdings and modernize their equipment. A lasting effect of these changes wasA. higher prices for cropsB. increased rural population densityC. a shortage of land for farmingD. greater productivity of farming
32Section 3: New Technology in Factories Content Elaboration: New technologies (e.g., mechanized assembly line, electric motors) made factory production more efficient and allowed for larger industrial plants. Some of the technological innovations that transformed the American economy in the late 19th and early 20th centuries include the telephone, phonograph, incandescent light bulb, washing machine, skyscraper, automobile, and airplane.
33New InnovationsResearch a new innovation of the Industrial Revolution.Explain the innovation.Who was the inventor?How did this innovation change people’s lives?Use the link below, or use a different source if you want.