Presentation on theme: "1840-1860 Chapter 12. The westward movement allowed people to arrive on the prairie, and did not have to clear forests to farm Federal land policy."— Presentation transcript:
The westward movement allowed people to arrive on the prairie, and did not have to clear forests to farm Federal land policy made land available to millions of ordinary people, increasing agricultural productivity Government land policy also enriched speculators who bought up large tracts and resold at a markup Invention of implements
Manufacturers could produce more with less labor “American System” of manufacturing and assembling interchangeable parts spread from gun-making to other enterprises Standardized parts allowed manufacturers to employ unskilled labor who were cheaper and more plentiful that other skilled craftsmen
Manufacturing and Agriculture meshed into a dynamic national economy, New England focused on manufacturing mostly for domestic markets Southern and Western states growing and producing wheat, port, whiskey, tobacco, and cotton
By 1850, 9,000 miles of track, mostly in New England and mid-Atlantic states
Railroads demanded and grew coal and iron industries Stimulated the telegraph industry: by 1861, 50,000 miles of wire along the tracks Almost all railroads were owned and built by private corporations, although aided by large federal land grants
The railroad boom of the 1850s and growing industrial might of the American economy linking farms and cities, the expanding populations moved westward.
Free labor ideal emphasizes hard work, self- reliance, and independence Many people left out Millions of immigrants entered the US in the 1840s and 1850s (Germany and Ireland)
Manifest Destiny: term coined in 1845 by New York journalist John L. O’Sullivan Most Americans believed the superiority of their institutions and white culture bestowed on them a God-given right to spread their civilization across the continent A combination of national pride, racial arrogance, and economic gain
Both Britain and the US claimed the Oregon territory but beginning in 1818, the two agreed to leave the territory open to settlers from both in ‘joint occupation’ Emigrants encountered both agricultural Indians, and nomadic warrior tribes, these contributed to the image of ‘savage Indian’ Emigrants on the trails west insisted on federal government protection on the trail In 1851, the government adopted a new policy of Indian concentration and persuaded chiefs to sign agreements to clear a wide corridor for the wagon trains Difficulties for women on the trail and upon arrival
New York to Ohio to Nauvoo, Illinois 1844 mob kills founder Joseph Smith and his brother Brigham Young leads the Mormons from Illinois to the Great Salt Lake
In 1850 the Mormon Kingdom is annexed by the US as the Utah territory Federal troops invade Salt Lake City to eradicate polygamy
The Mexican government wanted to populate and develop its northern territory and granted the American Stephen F. Austin a huge tract of land in Texas
Thousands of Americans poured into Texas bringing cotton and slaves with them 1830, Mexican government sought to halt further immigration by outlawing slavery Anglo settlers felt Santa Anna tyrannized them
Texas settlers, including David Crockett and James Bowie took refuge in an old Franciscan mission, the Alamo. All 187 rebels were killed by Santa Anna’s troops numbering about 2,000.
1836, Sam Houston’s army crushed Santa Anna’s troops and declared an independent republic the following year, the US recognized Texas’ independence from Mexico
1845, Texas admitted, after fierce debate as the fifteenth slave state
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