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1840-1860 Chapter 12.  The westward movement allowed people to arrive on the prairie, and did not have to clear forests to farm  Federal land policy.

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Presentation on theme: "1840-1860 Chapter 12.  The westward movement allowed people to arrive on the prairie, and did not have to clear forests to farm  Federal land policy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 12

2  The westward movement allowed people to arrive on the prairie, and did not have to clear forests to farm  Federal land policy made land available to millions of ordinary people, increasing agricultural productivity  Government land policy also enriched speculators who bought up large tracts and resold at a markup  Invention of implements

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5  Manufacturers could produce more with less labor  “American System” of manufacturing and assembling interchangeable parts spread from gun-making to other enterprises  Standardized parts allowed manufacturers to employ unskilled labor who were cheaper and more plentiful that other skilled craftsmen

6  Manufacturing and Agriculture meshed into a dynamic national economy,  New England focused on manufacturing mostly for domestic markets  Southern and Western states growing and producing wheat, port, whiskey, tobacco, and cotton

7  By 1850, 9,000 miles of track, mostly in New England and mid-Atlantic states

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9  Railroads demanded and grew coal and iron industries  Stimulated the telegraph industry: by 1861, 50,000 miles of wire along the tracks  Almost all railroads were owned and built by private corporations, although aided by large federal land grants

10  The railroad boom of the 1850s and growing industrial might of the American economy linking farms and cities, the expanding populations moved westward.

11  Free labor ideal emphasizes hard work, self- reliance, and independence  Many people left out  Millions of immigrants entered the US in the 1840s and 1850s (Germany and Ireland)

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13  Manifest Destiny: term coined in 1845 by New York journalist John L. O’Sullivan  Most Americans believed the superiority of their institutions and white culture bestowed on them a God-given right to spread their civilization across the continent  A combination of national pride, racial arrogance, and economic gain

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15  Both Britain and the US claimed the Oregon territory but beginning in 1818, the two agreed to leave the territory open to settlers from both in ‘joint occupation’  Emigrants encountered both agricultural Indians, and nomadic warrior tribes, these contributed to the image of ‘savage Indian’  Emigrants on the trails west insisted on federal government protection on the trail  In 1851, the government adopted a new policy of Indian concentration and persuaded chiefs to sign agreements to clear a wide corridor for the wagon trains  Difficulties for women on the trail and upon arrival

16  New York to Ohio to Nauvoo, Illinois  1844 mob kills founder Joseph Smith and his brother  Brigham Young leads the Mormons from Illinois to the Great Salt Lake

17  In 1850 the Mormon Kingdom is annexed by the US as the Utah territory  Federal troops invade Salt Lake City to eradicate polygamy

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19  The Mexican government wanted to populate and develop its northern territory and granted the American Stephen F. Austin a huge tract of land in Texas

20  Thousands of Americans poured into Texas bringing cotton and slaves with them  1830, Mexican government sought to halt further immigration by outlawing slavery  Anglo settlers felt Santa Anna tyrannized them

21  Texas settlers, including David Crockett and James Bowie took refuge in an old Franciscan mission, the Alamo. All 187 rebels were killed by Santa Anna’s troops numbering about 2,000.

22  1836, Sam Houston’s army crushed Santa Anna’s troops and declared an independent republic  the following year, the US recognized Texas’ independence from Mexico

23  1845, Texas admitted, after fierce debate as the fifteenth slave state

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26  Hero of the Mexican War, nominated for President over incumbant Millard Fillmore in He lost to Franklin Pierce.

27  Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo  Discovery of Gold in California  Oneida Community organized  Seneca Falls Women’s Rights Convention  Fox Sisters  US Presidential Election (Zachary Taylor)

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29  believed that individuals should conform neither to the materialistic world nor to the dogma of formal religion; people should look within themselves for truth and guidance

30  Onieda Community (New York) believed in economic and sexual communalism, and were ostracized by mainstream but lasted until long after the Civil War

31  1848, 100 reformers led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott gathered at Seneca Falls, New York for the first national women’s rights convention in the US

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33  Bill of women’s rights as written at the first women’s rights convention in US history.

34 FREDERICK DOUGLAS

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