5 Prehistoric BritainLate Neolithic (2500 B.C.) settlements expanded along the Thames RiverSettlements centered around large ditched enclosures – typified by opposing entrances – called henges.The most famous “henge” is Stonehenge (pre-2000 B.C.)
6 Celtic Invasion (Brythons) Celtic tribes were from GaulInvasion occurs around 1000 B.C.First settlers arrived in the 300s B.C.Mythological religion influenced many writers
7 Roman OccupationLed by J. Caesar, the Romans made preliminary raids in B.C.Emperor Claudiua invaded and occupied Britain in 43 A.D.Enslaved the CeltsBuilt roads and fortsOrganized government (However, they left no central government)Imposed taxesBuilt Hadrian’s WallIntroduced Christianity
8 Roman Occupation Hadrian’s Wall Built by the Romans in 121 Intended to prevent invaders from the North (the Picts and the Scots)
11 Roman OccupationScotland and Ireland were never under Roman domination; only England and Wales felt the infusion of Roman Culture.Evidence of Roman occupation in modern-day Britain:AmphitheatersGardensSpasConstruction
20 Anglo-Saxon InvasionAfter the Romans left, the Picts and the Scots began to attack areas of southern Britain.The Celts asked for help from the Angles, Saxons (Germany), and Jutes (Denmark).Saxons were in Britain before the Romans left; they were hired as mercenaries to defend the outposts of the region.Saxons were pirates.This set off a series of events known as the Anglo-Saxon Invasion.Invasion was piece-meal, spread out over many years (cerca 449 C.E.).Many scholars believe that the history of Britain begins with Anglo-Saxon Invasion.
21 **Did you know?** King Arthur Ambrosius Aurelianus was a Celtic king who halted the Anglo-Saxon invasion in Cornwall.Could he have been the legendary King Arthur?
23 Anglo-Saxon Britain Culture: The People Ruled by a king who is chosen by witan (council of elders)4 classes: earls, freemen, churls, & thrallsSettled most of Britain, and enslaved the CeltsThose who escaped were pushed into remote areas of Britain (present day Wales, Scotland, and Ireland).Tribes fought one another but had a lot in commonLanguageHeroism ideaSet of traditional heroesAdmired men of outstanding courage no matter what tribe they came from
24 Anglo-Saxon Britain Culture: The People Lived by strict codes of conductLoyalty to leader and tribe were necessary for the survival of allPersons of rank were received courteously no matter what tribe they came fromRuler was generous to those who were loyal (food, gold, drink, weapons)
25 Anglo-Saxon Britain Culture: The People The followers, in return for this generosity, were to remain loyalAll people were aware of the shortness of life and the passing away of all thingsEverything was determined by fateThe only thing that lasted was fame, so all competed for it
26 Anglo-Saxon Britain Culture: The People Society was fairly well developed (family unit-clan-tribe-kingdom)Anglo-Saxons appreciated beauty, were hardy, brave, and loved actionAdorned themselves with bracelets, brooches with exquisite design and workmanshipThere was a continual threat of invasion from the Vikings and Danes.
27 Anglo-Saxon Britain Culture: Justice Anglo-Saxons believed that the business of government lay with the local authority.Tended to be private rather than publicEmphasis was on revengeIf someone killed a member of your family, if you could, kill the slayer, or the next best thing – a member of his familyWhen a man committed the unpardonable offense of a crime against an actual kinsman, vengeance could be averted by payment of wergild (blood money)Fines were determined according to the extent of injury
28 Anglo-Saxon Britain Culture: Government Government centered on tribes and villages.The five main Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms were:NorthumbriaMerciaEast AngliaWessexKent
29 Anglo-Saxon Britain Culture: Democratic Tendancy Expressed loyalty to chosen leadersLiked to hold meetings where people could openly express what they thought and felt
30 Anglo-Saxon Britain Religion: Paganism Sometimes called HeathenismDark and fatalistic – grim view of life because of the ever present danger of death by accident or warfare.Concerned with bravery, loyalty, generosity, friendshipAccording to ancient beliefs it was dangerous to meet strangers in a house or building because it left you vulnerable to the stranger’s magic.
31 Anglo-Saxon Britain Religion: Paganism Believed in wyrd (fate)No hope of afterlife, only fameWorship of nature: “the powerful, uncontrollable and life-giving force upon which existence depends”Gods and goddesses were part of and ruled almost every aspect of life: birth, life, death, harvest, earth, sky, love, fertility, nature, weather and much more.
32 Anglo-Saxon Britain Religion: The Reintroduction of Christianity By 650 C.E., most of England was ChristianChristianity was reintroduced in the 7th century with St. Augustine.Christianity providedcommon faithcommon system of morality and right conductwritten languageLinked England to Europe.The Anglo-Saxons “invited” Roman monks to return to England because they were educated and could teach others to read.
33 Anglo-Saxon Britain Religion: The Reintroduction of Christianity According to Bede, the Christian missionaries sent from Rome were “appalled at the idea of going to a barbarous, fierce and pagan nation…” (Book 2,12.)Christianity was practiced mainly by the royal house and the well populated areas of the country; country folk in remote country sides and isolated communities and farmsteads held their Pagan beliefs.Pagan temples were converted to Christian places of worship.
34 Anglo-Saxon Britain Religion: The Reintroduction of Christianity Anglo-Saxon “Christians” could hardly be considered Christians by today’s standards, as they held a mixture of Christian and Heathen beliefs.Boar: sacred to Ingui/Freyr and offered protection during combatCross: symbol of Christ
35 Anglo-Saxon Britain Religion: The Reintroduction of Christianity Conflict between Roman and Celtic church: they did not recognize the same holidaysMany Celts did not recognize the Pope’s authorityWhen Christianity failed to meet their needs, new Christians would revert to the old religion.Under Christianity, heathen ruthlessness began to disappear
36 Anglo-Saxon Britain Religion: The Reintroduction of Christianity Influences of ChristianityMonasteries were important centers of social, intellectual, artistic, and literary lifeMonks copied books imported from other European countriesSome Monks wrote original works in Latin (ex. Venerable Bede)
37 Anglo-Saxon Britain Famous Anglo-Saxons Venerable BedeVenerable: reputation for wisdom, humility, and scholarshipMonk from NorthumbriaAuthor and ScholarEarliest historian of EnglandKnown as “The Father of English History”Earliest important prose writerWrote The Ecclesiastical History of the English PeopleHelped people take pride in their pastProvides a fairly accurate picture of daily life of Bede’s peopleChronicle of events, legends, lives of saints, local traditions, and stories
38 Anglo-Saxon Britain Famous Anglo-Saxons King Alfred the GreatRuled from C.E.Saved England from the Danes/VikingsOrganized military methods and systemsBelieved that the best defense for an island was a strong navyModified the Witan concept (“council of elders”) to trial-by-juryValued learningHad all documents written in English
39 Anglo-Saxon BritainAnglo-Saxon England was born in warfare, remained a military society, and came to an end in 1066 because the Normans were militarily superior.
40 Other Invasions Danes (Vikings) Norman Conquest 700-1000 C.E. From ScandinaviaNorse: NorwayDanes: DenmarkFierce piratesDidn’t overthrow all Anglo-Saxons – settled in the east and north (establishing Dane law) and battled with Anglo-Saxons until the Norman InvasionNorman ConquestFrom FranceLed by William the Conqueror1066Ends Anglo-Saxon rule