Vocabulary 1. Imperialism 2. Racism 3. Social Darwinism 4. Berlin Conference 5. Boer War Chapter 11 Section 1
Geography Skillbuilder 1. How does imperialism in Africa in 1878 compare with that in 1913? 2. What does the map of ethnic boundaries suggest about the number of ethnic groups in Africa in 1913? Use Page 343
The Scramble for Africa Africa Before European Domination- Africans controlled their own trade networks. European travel into the interior was nearly impossible. Nations Compete for Overseas Empires- Europeans that did penetrate Africa were explorers, missionaries or humanitarians. The Congo Sparks Interest- A Scottish missionary David Livingstone traveled deep into central Africa. A few years passed and he was feared dead. An American newspaper hired Stanley to find him. Stanley found Livingstone then set out to explore the Congo. His explorations peaked the interests of King Leopold II of Belgium. Belgium colonized the Congo for economic interests and profits.
Forces Driving Imperialism The motives that drove colonization in Africa and in other lands were economic, political and social forces. Belief in European Superiority- The race for colonies grew out of national pride. Each country desired to calm land for their country. Factors Promoting Imperialism in Africa- Europeans were technologically advanced (automatic machine Maxim gun, steam engine, railroads, cables, and steamships). African ethnic group division over land, water and trade rights prevented a unified stand against European invasion.
The Division of Africa Berlin Conference Divides Africa- Competition for land in Africa was fierce, to avoid conflict, 14 European countries met in at the Berlin Conference in 1884-1885 to establish rules for the division of Africa. By 1914, only two countries (Liberia & Ethiopia) remained free. Demand for Raw Materials Shapes Colonies- European countries began to colonize due to the need for raw materials. The Belgium Congo provided copper and tin while South Africa provided gold and diamonds. Eventually cash crops like peanuts, cocoa, and rubber replaced food crops grown by farmers to feed their families.
Three Groups Clash Over South Africa Zulus Fight the British- A Zulu chief Shaka resisted British efforts to colonize. His successors were not as successful at keeping the kingdom unified. The Zulu nation fell to the British in 1887. Boers and British Settle in the Cape- The Dutch known as the Boers,(Dutch for farmer), established a colony in South Africa, and established huge farms. The British took over Cape Colony and the two groups clashed over British policy regarding land and slaves. When diamonds and gold were discovered in the 1860s the British and the Dutch fought for control of South Africa. In 1910, the British won the war, and the Boer republics joined to form the Union of South Africa, which was controlled by the British.
A New Period of Imperialism Forms of Control- Europeans used different techniques to control the Africans. Four types of colonial control emerged: colony, protectorate, sphere of influence, and economic imperialism. Methods of Management- Direct Control- Used existing political leaders that were trained to carry out the European forms of government. Indirect Control- Used paternalism. Europeans governed in a parental way by providing needs but not giving rights. They also supported assimilation, local populations were expected to adopt the European culture.
African Resistance Unsuccessful Movements- African across the continent resisted European attempts to colonize their land. Africans used whatever forces they could including active resistance and resistance through religious movements. All failed except Ethiopia. Ethiopia: A Successful Resistance- Ethiopia was the only successful nation to resist European colonization. Their victory was due to a strong leader, Menelik II. He played the European nations against each other, and built a huge arsenal to defend his country.
The Legacy of Colonial Rule Negative Effects-Africans lost control of their land and independence. Many died from diseases and resistance fighting. Substance farming was replaced with cash crops. There was a break down of African tradition and a division of the continent. Positive Effects- Colonialism reduced local warfare. Humanitarian efforts improved sanitation and provided hospitals and schools. Life spans increased and literacy improved. Railroads, dams and telephone/telegraph lines were built.
Vocabulary 1. Sepoy Mutiny 2. “Jewel in the Crown” 3. Raj 4. Ram Mohun Roy 5. Muslim League Chapter 11 Section 4
British Expand Control Over India East India Company Dominates- British had economic interests India and set up trading posts. The British government controlled and benefited from the East India Company. Britain’s “Jewel in the Crown”- India was considered the most valuable of all of Britain’s colonies. The British set up restrictions that prevented India from operating on its own. British policies required India to provide raw materials that they needed for manufacturing. Indians were required to buy British goods.
British Expand Control Over India British Transport Trade Goods- After the establishment of a railroad network, India became increasingly important to Britain. These railroads transported raw materials to ports. Impact of Colonialism- India benefited and was harmed by colonialism. Negative - The British held the political and economic power, and demonstrated racist attitudes toward Indians. The British restricted Indian owned industries such as cotton textiles. The British placed a huge emphasis on cash crops which reduced food production. Positive - The world’s third largest railroad network that modernized the economy and unified the connected country. Telephone/telegraph lines, dams bridges and irrigation canals were established and helped to modernize the country. Sanitation and public health improved. Schools and colleges were created and literacy improved. Local warfare ended.
The Sepoy Mutiny Many Indians believed the British were racist and trying to convert them to Christianity. The Indians resented the British control. Indians Rebel- A rebellion occurred when the British failed to acknowledge a cultural difference of the Hindu people. The British greased the gun cartridges used by sepoys (Indian soldiers) with beef and pork fat. This led the soldiers to refuse to use the cartridges. The cartridges had to be bitten to be used and the sepoys were Hindu and Muslim and both religions forbid eating either pork or beef. Turning Point- As a result, the British government took direct control of India. The term “Raj” refers to British rule over India from 1757-1947.
Nationalism Surfaces in India Nationalist Groups Form- Growing nationalism led to the founding of two groups: the Indian National Congress(1885)and the Muslim League (1906). The Partition of Bengal- The British chose to partition Bengal in 1905. The province was too large for administrative purposes so the British chose to divide it into Hindu and Muslim sections. As a result terrorism broke out. In 1911, the British took take the partition and divided province a different way.
Geography Skillbuilder Use page 358 1. Which nation in 1910 held the most land in colonies? 2. How is the location of India a great advantage for trade?