Enlightenment and French Revolution (1688-1815) By: Gabe Lungstrom, Olivia Kusel, Taylor Robertson
Scientists Isaac Newton Isaac Newton- (1642-1727)- Was an English-born, enlightenment scientist. He is considered to be the most influential scientist of all time. He is most famous for his work on classical mechanics and the laws of motion. He is most famous for his “Three Laws of Motion”. The significance of this is that it came through using the logical views and practices of the enlightenment. His findings disagreed with the beliefs of the time, who were formulated by Aristotle. John Locke John Locke- (1632-1704)- John Locke was also English-born, he was known as an early political-philosopher as well as an early psychologist. Politically speaking, he is known as the father of classical-liberalism, and worked heavily with social contracts. He also formulated the beliefs that humans come into the world “tabula rasa” or “blank slate” and our beliefs and personality are shaped directly through our experiences.
Philosophers Baron de Montesquieu Baron de Montesquieu- (1689-1755)- Montesquieu could be considered a early follower of parliamentary monarchy. He believed in the divine right of Kings, while supporting the abolition of slavery, greater civil liberties, and women's rights. Jean-Jacques Rousseau Jean-Jacques Rousseau- (1712-1778)- Rousseau is probably the most prominent French philosophe. His ideas on social-contract theory and his “Declaration on the rights of Man” inspired many liberal philosophers as well as the French Revolution. Mary Wollstonecraft Mary Wollstonecraft- (1759-1797)- Was the mother of the modern feminist movement and wrote “Vindication of the Rights of Women”. She argued that women were not inferior, rather, that they were only lacking education. Edmund Burke Edmund Burke- (1729-1797)- Edmund Burke is considered the father of modern Conservatism. He argued for slow and gradual change in society and was a fierce opponent to the French Revolution, which he attacked as blood-thirsty and senseless.
Writers Francois Voltaire Francois Voltaire- He was a French writer and philosophe, known for his use of satire in advocating for greater civil liberties. His works and ideas were both influences of the ideals of the French Revolution. He most famously being his “Candide” which attacked the “Optimist” philosophy of Liebniz. Alexander Pope- Alexander Pope- (1688-1744)- He was a British writer and one of the fathers of modern social commentary and satire. He used his writings to insult as well as inform and bring attention to social issues which were largely ignored in that time. Most famous for “A Modest Proposal” which called for better care for the poor. Denis Diderot Denis Diderot- (1713-1784)- French philosophe and author, led a tough life in the pursuit of his works. He is most famous for writing and publishing the “Encyclopedie”, which was the first modern version of an encyclopedia.
Famous Books 1721: Montesquieu published Persian Letters. Was written to liberate the mind. 1733: Voltaire published Philosophic Letters to the English. Book written about the problem facing France at this time. 1748: Montesquieu published The Spirit of the Laws. How the conditions of the country were influencing its social and political structure. 1751: Voltaire published The Age of Louis XIV. 1751-1765: Diderot published The Encyclopedia. This was considered the biggest achievement of his career. 1762: Rousseau published The Social Contract, Emile. Attempt to unite the liberty of the individual with the authority of the government. Emile was written for education purposes. 1763: Voltaire published Treaties on Toleration. 1764: Beccaria published On Crimes and Punishments. 1776: Smith publishes The Wealth of Nations. 1784: Immanuel Kant publishes his Critique of Pure Reason, based on his analysis of the human mind and how it relates to nature. 1787: Condorcet published a Treatise on the Rights of Women. He said that women have the same natural rights as men. French Revolution Begins in 1789……. 1791: Olympe de Gouges published a Declaration of the Rights of Woman. 1791: Thomas Paine's Rights of Man was written. 1794: Thomas Paine's The Age of Reason was written. 1794: Condorcet wrote The Progress of the Human Mind.
Nations and Rulers France France- King Louis XIV (1643-1715), King Louis XV (1715-1774), King Louis XVI (1774-1792), National Assembly (1789), National Constituent Assembly (1789-1791), Legislative Assembly (1791-1792), National Convention (1792-1795), Committee of Public Safety (de facto 1793-1794, led by Maximillien Robspierre), Directory (1795-1799), The Consulate (1799- 1804,with Napoleon as first Consul), First French Empire (1804-1814, 1815, with Emporer Napoleon I) Britain Britain- Queen Mary II (1684-1689), William III (1689-1702), Queen Anne (1702-1714), King George I (1714-1727), King George II (1727-1760), King George III (1760-1820), King George IV (1820-1830), King William IV (1830-1837), Queen Victoria (1837-1901) Prussia Prussia- Frederick I (1688-1713), Frederick William I ( 1713-1740), Frederick II (1740-1786) Frederick William II (1786-1797), Frederick William III (1797- 1840)
Treaties and Wars 1688: “Glorious Revolution” in England. 1689: Treaty of Nerchinsk between the Russian and the Qing Empires. 1702: The War of Spanish Succession and the Holy Roman Emperor Charles XII invades Poland. 1713: Treaty of Utrecht ends the War of the Spanish Succession for Britain and the Netherlands. France cedes most Canadian holdings to Britain. 1717: France, Britain, and Holland form the Triple Alliance. 1718: Ottoman and Holy Roman Empires sign Treaty of Passarowitz; Triple Alliance becomes Quadruple Alliance when Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI joins it. 1733: War of the Polish Succession. 1738: War of the Polish Succession ends. 1756: Seven Years’ War begins. 1763: Seven Years’ War ends. 1783: Treaty of Versailles ends war between Britain, France, and Spain. 1789: Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen adopted by the French National Assembly; storming of the Bastille political prison in Paris; Antoine Lavoisier creates first table of elements; start of French Revolution. 1792: France declared a republic. 1793: France declares war on England and Holland and then eventually Spain. 1799: War of the Second Coalition (Great Britain, Portugal, and Naples, with the Holy Roman, Russian, and Ottoman Empires) against France, where the Directory Government is overthrown and Napoleon Bonaparte is named First Consul. 1801: Treaty of Lunéville between France and Austria: reproduces that of Campo Formio. 1801: Peace Treaty between France and Russia yet Britain and France still remain at war. 1803: Britain declares war on France. The beginning of Napoleonic Wars. 1805: Prussia signs Treaty of Potsdam with Austria and Russia, effectively committing itself to entering the war.
“Isms” Absolutism Absolutism- Absolutism has been present in almost every government before the enlightenment, but only during the enlightenment did it gain a name after the leading style of French King Louis XIV, who led France with an Iron hand over all aspects of public life, government, and finances. Liberalism Liberalism- Liberalism came to be during the Enlightenment as a direct response to Absolutism. The major French philosophes all preached Liberalism as the only fair and successful way to govern a country. Liberalism is characteristic of more rapid change, laissez-faire style economics, and greater civil liberties, all tied together generally with a social contract or constitution and governed as a republic or parliamentary/constitutional monarchy. Conservatism Conservatism- This movement was a reaction against rapid change of Liberalism, fathered by Edmund Burke. Conservatism promoted gradual change and the rights of the monarch or governing authority.
Inventions Guillotine Guillotine- a device used for carrying out executions by decapitation. It consists of a tall upright frame from which an angled blade is suspended. This blade is raised with a rope, and the condemned then places his or her head beneath it. The blade then falls rapidly, severing the head from the body. A hot-air balloon A hot-air balloon -Joseph and Jacques Etienne Montgolfier were two French bothers who made the first successful hot-air balloon. Their first balloon was launched in December, 1782, and ascended to an altitude of 985 ft (300 m). This type of hot-air balloon was called the Montgolfiére; it was made of paper and used air heated by burning wool and moist straw. The first passengers in a hot-air balloon were a rooster, a sheep, and a duck, whom the Montgolfier brothers sent up on September 19, 1783 (the trip lasted for 8 minutes); the animals survived the landing. This event was observed by King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette of France. Metric System Metric System was invented in France. In 1790, the French National Assembly directed the Academy of Sciences of Paris to standardize the units of measurement.
Population Trends With the growth of population during the 17th and 18th centuries, urbanization began in earnest. Urbanization is a major factor in the development of the Enlightenment. As cities grew, so did the middle class. As the population grew, so did demand and prices for basic goods--food, shelter, clothing. Creating, distributing, and selling these goods became increasingly important activities. After all, people in the city could not make their own food and clothing, for the most part. During the French revolution price were driven up and that is when Maltese came up with his theory of population increase, Europe’s population would increase which would lead to resource consumption increasing while the resources themselves began to dissipate.
Marriage/Family Trends The family was less of moral support and more a means of production and consumption. The household usually consisted of a married couple, children through their teen years and servants. Except for the extremely wealthy, which were not many, households were considerably small.