Presentation on theme: "Chapter 19, Section 2. When Japan continued to move from neighboring Manchuria into China, Roosevelt condemned their actions in his ‘Quarantine Speech’."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 19, Section 2
When Japan continued to move from neighboring Manchuria into China, Roosevelt condemned their actions in his ‘Quarantine Speech’. He lamented the aggression of Japan, who had never issued a declaration of war. In Dec. 1937, Japanese soldiers captured the city of Nanking and committed mass murder and mass rape on its citizens. This became known as the Rape of Nanking.
“When an epidemic of physical disease starts to spread, the community approves and joins in a quarantine of the patients in order to protect the health of the community against the spread of the disease… War is a contagion, whether it be declared or undeclared. It can engulf states and peoples remote from the original scene of hostilities. We are determined to keep out of war, yet we cannot insure ourselves against the disastrous effects of war and the dangers of involvement.”
Britain and France had taken a policy of appeasement towards Hitler– where concessions (allowances) were granted in the hopes of maintaining peace. Hitler had wanted to acquire the Sudentenland, a part of Czechoslovakia where many Germans lived. Britain and France granted the Sudentenland to Hitler to preserve peace in the Munich Pact.
In response to the Nazi-Soviet Non-agression Pact, Britain and France realized they had to take action. When Germany turned their attention towards Poland, they employed a new technique known as blitzkreig– lightening war. On September 1 st, 1939, Germany invaded Poland and WWII had begun.
As Germany continued to move throughout Europe, they soon attempted to conquer the powerhouses of France and Britain. France fell within 35 days– their forces were no match for the German tanks. When Germany looked to attack Britain, they were ready. The British Royal Air Force (RAF) vs. the German Luftwaffe damaged many British properties in its month-long bombing campaign. But, Hitler called off the raid.
As the war progressed into 1941, there were two definitive sides– the Axis Powers and the Allies. The Axis Powers included Germany, Italy and Japan, and other conquered countries. The Allies consisted of Britain and France. (eventually, other countries would join, such as the U.S., Soviet Union and China)
Although Roosevelt was inclined to join forces with Winston Churchill and Britain, the majority of Americans wanted to remain neutral. The severe economic crisis and the cost (both financially and in lives) of WWI pushed Americans more towards an isolationist standpoint.
Congress passed a series of Neutrality Acts in 1935, 1936 and 1937, limiting the power of Roosevelt. The Neutrality Act of 1939 did allow for the U.S. to implement a ‘cash-and-carry’ policy. This policy allowed nations at war to buy American goods and arms, as long as they paid cash and carried them away on their own. Since the British navy dominated, this benefited the Allies.
Events in Europe continued to sway American opinion towards involvement. Reports from Edward R. Murrow during the bombing of Britain shocked American viewers. The growth of the war in Europe was solidified when Japan, Italy and Germany signed the Tripartite Pact– formally declaring themselves as Allies. The U.S. realized the war would last much longer, and its allies were in danger, so they passed a Selective Service Act, starting a peacetime draft.
Once Roosevelt was re-elected, he began pushing more for American intervention. In his address to Congress on January 6 th, 1941, Roosevelt gave his famous Four Freedoms speech, which declared that Freedom from want; Freedom of speech; Freedom of worship; Freedom from fear were threatened by Nazi and Japanese aggression.
When Britain ran out of money to purchase goods via the cash-and-carry policy, the U.S. came to their aid. The Lend-Lease Act gave Roosevelt the power to “sell, lease, exchange, lend, or otherwise dispose of… defense articles… necessary in the defense of the U.S.” The U.S. was the arms supplier, keeping democracy safe around the world. It was an “arsenal for democracy”.
Even though the U.S. had not formally entered the war, they were still actively supporting the Allies. When Churchill and Roosevelt met secretly in August 1941, they signed a mutual agreement preserving “general security” and self-determination. This agreement would become known as the Atlantic Charter.
Chapter 19, Section 3
As Japan looked to conquer Asia, the presence of the U.S. in Guam and the Philippines was seen as a threat. However, Japan needed the U.S. for natural resources. When Hideki Tojo became Japanese prime minister, he retaliated against the U.S. embargo by attacking Pearl Harbor, the U.S.’ main Pacific naval base.
Although the American naval fleet suffered losses (2,500 deaths, 8 battleships, 3 destroyers, 3 light cruisers and 160 airplanes), the most important ships (aircraft carriers) were out to sea at the time. Chief Admiral Nagumo turned conservative and called off a third wave, and did not go after the aircraft carriers. After the attack, FDR declared it would be “a day that will live in infamy.”
350,000 women responded to the call for those to serve during WWII. Encouraged by the creation of the Women’s Army Corps. They would provide clerical workers, truck drivers, instructors and lab technicians for the Army. When the economy shifted from peacetime to wartime, there was massive defense spending, causing a surge in industrial production. Now there was a job for every worker.
The U.S. forces in Asia, led by Douglas MacArthur were struggling, and were forced to retreat. They were ultimately pushed back to the Bataan Peninsula, and held off the Japanese for a few 5 months. In May, 1942 American troops surrendered and were forced to march a total of 63 miles inland. Over 7,000 Americans and Filipinos died on the Bataan Death March.
The Doolittle Raid, an airstrike over Japan and China, and the Battle at Coral Sea (a battle between aircraft carriers) caused very little damage, but boosted American confidence in the ‘Pacific theater.’ Soon, American production would best the Axis Powers in regards to ship production, securing a victory for the Allies.