Warm Up With your partner, put the paintings on your desk in chronological. Why did you arrange them in this order?
Objectives & Essential Question Objectives Define humanism Identify hallmarks of Medieval art and explain how and why they ceased to be used in Renaissance art Explain how this change in art reflects humanist ideals Essential Question How did changes in art reflect new Renaissance ideals?
Secular Humanism Secular: Not religious Humanism: Placing the study and progress of human nature at the center of interests. – Importance of humans – Prefers evidence/reason over faith/doctrine – Emphasis on individual achievement
Petrarch Petrarch (1304-1374) – Father of the Renaissance – Italian scholar and poet Translated Cicero’s letters – Reignited interest in Greek and Roman antiquity – Helped reconcile pagan writings with Catholic beliefs – Wrote in vernacular (common language of the people, not Latin)
Petrarch’s Poetry Petrarch spent a great part of his life seeking out, transcribing, editing, elucidating [explaining] and making available the surviving works of Roman classical literature, and it was for this and for his letters and his biographies of famous Romans.... that he himself above all expected to be remembered. But he was also one of the first Italians to champion vernacular poetry, an enterprise that most of his educated contemporaries took little interest in or actively disdained. And in the long run it was Petrarch's Italian verses that made him a literary figure of immense celebrity and importance, not only in Italy but in distant lands. In many places he was frequently credited with having invented the sonnet. This was an exaggeration, yet he made this form so much his own that, in many ways, he might just have well have done. http://www.nytimes.com/2004/05/29/style/29iht-conway_ed3__0.html
Sonnet 61, Petrarch, 1340s Blest be the day, and blest the month and year, Season and hour and very moment blest, The lovely land and place where first possessed By two pure eyes I found me prisoner; And blest the first sweet pain, the first most dear, Which burnt my heart when Love came in as guest; And blest the bow, the shafts which shook my breast, And even the wounds which Love delivered there. Blest be the words and voices which filled grove And glen with echoes of my lady's name; The sighs, the tears, the fierce despair of love; And blest the sonnet-sources of my fame; And blest that thought of thoughts which is her own, Of her, her only, of herself alone! La Vita Nuova, Dante, 1292 To every captive soul and gentle heart into whose sight this present speech may come, so that they might write its meaning for me, greetings, in their lord’s name, who is Love. Already a third of the hours were almost past of the time when all the stars were shining, when Amor suddenly appeared to me whose memory fills me with terror. Joyfully Amor seemed to me to hold my heart in his hand, and held in his arms my lady wrapped in a cloth sleeping. Then he woke her, and that burning heart he fed to her reverently, she fearing, afterwards he went not to be seen weeping. How are the depictions of love different between Dante and Petrarch?
Humanism in Art Very early Renaissance Many Medieval elements – Halos – residents of heaven – Hieratic Scale – more important people are larger Jacopa di Cione, 1360-65, Madonna and Child in Glory, Tempera and gold on panel
Humanism in Art How does the background of this image compare with the previous one? – During Middle Ages, artists used gold backgrounds to symbolize holy atmosphere/heaven – This will change during the Renaissance Halos? Hieratic Scale? Is surrounding true to life? Franconian School (German), Miraculous Mass of St. Martin of Tours, 1440 Tempera and Gold on Canvas on Panel
Humanism in Art Halos? – How are they different than previous paintings? Describe the landscape – natural scenery, such as trees, rocks, rivers, lakes, mountains, sky and clouds. – Heavenly or earthly? With change in Renaissance interests from religion to natural sciences, art changed too – Holy family live in same world as ordinary people Guilliano Bugiardini, Madonna and Child with St. John, 1523-25 Oil on Campus
Tempera vs. Oil Paint How does it affect light and shading? Tempera PaintOil Paint
Humanism in Art Halos? Hieratic Scale? Oil or Tempera paint? Giovanni Agostino da Lodi, Adoration of the Sheperds, 1505 Oil on Wood Panel
Humanism in Art Look at the buildings in the background – do they look true to life or not? – Why or why not? Perspective: A variety of techniques used to create the illusion of three- dimensional space on a flat surface such as a painting or drawing. Kress Monogrammist, Adoration of the Magi, 1550/1560 Oil on Oak Panel
Perspective Developed by Filippo Brunelleschi (1377- 1446)
The Importance of Perspective In the Middle Ages, the period before the Renaissance, most art in Europe featured heavenly figures devoted to the worship of Christ. Because the people in Medieval paintings were citizens of heaven and the artists painting these pictures had never actually seen heaven, the background was left to the imagination and the teachings of the church. Gold backgrounds were very common, as the air in heaven surely must be precious. When people became more interested in the world around them and the ideas of other people rather than heaven and the teachings of Christ and the saints, landscapes and buildings began to show up in paintings. Everyone could see landscapes and buildings everyday so one of the essential artistic problems of the Renaissance became how to paint landscapes and buildings in pictures so that they looked the same as in real life. http://www.renaissanceconnection.org/lesson_art_perspective.html
Humanism in Art Made later in Renaissance than previous images Religious subjects were popular during Renaissance However, for the first time in art history, ordinary people also became worthwhile subjects of art Annibale Carracci, Bean Eater, 1582/83 Oil on Canvas
Exit Ticket – Let’s Consolidate Knowledge! Define the term “humanism” Choose one change in art from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance that we discussed today and explain how that change reflects the beliefs of humanism.