Presentation on theme: "6th Grade UBD - Unit 5 – The Mongols. The Mongols in War- Under Genghis Khan and his successors, the Mongols conquered the largest empire in history."— Presentation transcript:
6th Grade UBD - Unit 5 – The Mongols
The Mongols in War- Under Genghis Khan and his successors, the Mongols conquered the largest empire in history up to that time. The Mongols at Peace- After their conquests, the Mongols promoted trade and cultural exchange throughout their empire and beyond.
Landforms are important no matter where you live. Make a list of all the physical features in your region you can think of. Which of these physical features attract visitors? (5 minutes)
Work with a neighbor and compare your answer with theirs. What things are the same and what things are different? (3 minutes)
The Mongols used swift attacks and terrifying tactics to break the spirit of their enemies and conquer their territory. The Mongolian Empire at its greatest bordered on the Pacific Ocean, the Himalayan Mountains, the Black Sea, and the Persian Gulf. The mounted warriors of the Mongol Empire provided a distinct advantage and helped them to conquer a vast amount of land.
Video- Young Temujin
Key Term Mongolia- A country that lies between China and Russia, bordering with China to its south, east, and west and with Russia to its north.
Under the leadership of Genghis Khan, all the nomadic tribes of Mongolia came together in the early 1200s to create the Great Mongol Nation.
Genghis Khan united tribes by incorporating the established laws and customs of various groups into a single system.
Genghis Khan amassed an army of 80,000 fierce, cunning, highly skilled warriors. For a period of six years, Genghis worked on establishing Mongolia’s laws and forming alliances with neighboring nations. Eventually, however, Genghis set his sights on expansion.
Genghis’s first conquest was the Jurched Kingdom of northern China. His army became adept at defeating enemies in many settings, from steppe warfare to attacks on fortified cities.
Key Term Steppe- A large area of flat grassland.
They used swift attacks and terrifying tactics— destroying the food supply, making secret alliances with rebel forces, launching unexpected attacks, etc.—to demoralize their enemies and conquer their territory.
His mounted warriors could live for days on horseback. Their saddlebags carried food, spare clothes, tools, and weapons.
Mongol warriors commanded horses with the pressure of their legs alone. So, they could even shoot arrows at a full gallop.
Reading Handout- Psychological Warfare
After conquering northern China, Genghis and his warriors moved toward Central Asia with the goal of controlling all the territory along the Silk Road. By 1221, the Mongol Empire had expanded to include Central Asia.
Key Term Genghis Khan- The ambitious and terrifying warrior originally named Temujin who united the nomads of Mongolia and conquered a vast Asian empire.
Following Genghis Khan’s death in 1227, his sons shared control of the vast empire. Although they occasionally battled one another for power, the empire continued to expand.
By 1290, the Mongol Empire stretched from the Pacific Ocean to the Black and Mediterranean seas and from the Himalayan Mountains to the Persian Gulf. The Mongols controlled China, Central Asia, Russia, and parts of the Middle East and Hungary.
Video- Ancient Lives
Women held more rights under the Mongol Empire than in most other cultures at that time. Mongol men were always preparing for or at war.
So, women took on many economic roles, or roles having to do with money. Some women even served in the army. Women had the right to divorce and to own property.
Although the Mongols had conquered many people from many lands, they did not impose their language and culture on the people they conquered. Under their rule, people had freedom of religion.
Kublai Khan was Genghis Khan’s grandson, who completed the conquest of China in 1259 and established himself as the Great Khan.
Kublai Khan reorganized the government to include both Chinese and foreign officials, and he brought in translators to make it possible for the various cultures in the empire to share ideas.
In just 50 years, the Mongols had conquered the largest empire the world had ever known. Now, across their huge kingdom, warfare all but stopped.
The power of the Mongol Empire led to a period of stability that allowed business and trade to grow. Mongols controlled the trade routes and encouraged the exchange of goods and ideas among various cultural regions of their empire. Marco Polo visited China from Europe and was a guest of Kublai Khan. He became an official of the Khan’s government. Marco Polo’s description of China increased the demand for Chinese goods in Europe.
Key Term Pax Mongolica- Latin for “Mongolian peace.” The term refers to a period of time when all of Eurasia was under the control of the Mongolians, ruled by Genghis Khan.
The Mongols established in all the lands they controlled, which included the entire length of the Silk Road. As a result, traders from as far away as Europe could finally journey to China without fear of attack.
Video- The Merchants of China
Among the first Europeans to visit China was Marco Polo, who traveled there with his father and his uncle as a teenager. Polo spent 17 years in China, where he impressed Kublai Khan with his intelligence and skill at learning languages.
Later, Polo wrote a book about his travels in China and his experiences in the court of the Great Khan.
Through Polo’s book, Europeans learned of China’s great wealth as well as the country’s technology, food, plants, and animals.
Marco’s book was translated, or changed, into nearly every European language. Many people could not believe that what he described was true.
They made fun of him as “Marco of a million lies.” Yet, the book described the journey to China in careful detail. Merchants and travelers used it as a guide well into the 1800s.
Marco Polo’s book about China even inspired future explorers, such as Christopher Columbus, to go in search of the exotic land of Asia.
Video- Wait For It...The Mongols!
What has been the “muddiest” point so far in this lesson? That is, what topic remains the least clear to you? (4 minutes)
Work with a neighbor and compare your muddiest point with theirs. Compare what things are the same and what things are different? (3 minutes)