2 PreviewThe Mongols in War- Under Genghis Khan and his successors, the Mongols conquered the largest empire in history up to that time.The Mongols at Peace- After their conquests, the Mongols promoted trade and cultural exchange throughout their empire and beyond.
3 Reach Into Your Background Landforms are important no matter where you live. Make a list of all the physical features in your region you can think of. Which of these physical features attract visitors?(5 minutes)
4 Partner ActivityWork with a neighbor and compare your answer with theirs. What things are the same and what things are different? (3 minutes)
5 Key Ideas- The Mongols in War The Mongols used swift attacks and terrifying tactics to break the spirit of their enemies and conquer their territory.The Mongolian Empire at its greatest bordered on the Pacific Ocean, the Himalayan Mountains, the Black Sea, and the Persian Gulf.The mounted warriors of the Mongol Empire provided a distinct advantage and helped them to conquer a vast amount of land.
7 Key TermMongolia- A country that lies between China and Russia, bordering with China to its south, east, and west and with Russia to its north.
8 The Beginnings of the Mongol Empire Under the leadership of Genghis Khan, all the nomadic tribes of Mongolia came together in the early 1200s to create the Great Mongol Nation.
9 The Beginnings of the Mongol Empire Genghis Khan united tribes by incorporating the established laws and customs of various groups into a single system.
10 The Beginnings of the Mongol Empire Genghis Khan amassed an army of 80,000 fierce, cunning, highly skilled warriors.For a period of six years, Genghis worked on establishing Mongolia’s laws and forming alliances with neighboring nations.Eventually, however, Genghis set his sights on expansion.
11 The Mongol EmpireGenghis’s first conquest was the Jurched Kingdom of northern China.His army became adept at defeating enemies in many settings, from steppe warfare to attacks on fortified cities.
12 Key TermSteppe- A large area of flat grassland.
13 The Mongol Empire They used swift attacks and terrifying tactics—destroying the food supply, making secret alliances with rebel forces, launching unexpected attacks, etc.—to demoralize their enemies and conquer their territory.
14 The Mongol EmpireHis mounted warriors could live for days on horseback.Their saddlebags carried food, spare clothes, tools, and weapons.
15 The Mongol EmpireMongol warriors commanded horses with the pressure of their legs alone. So, they could even shoot arrows at a full gallop.
17 The Mongol EmpireAfter conquering northern China, Genghis and his warriors moved toward Central Asia with the goal of controlling all the territory along the Silk Road.By 1221, the Mongol Empire had expanded to include Central Asia.
18 Key TermGenghis Khan- The ambitious and terrifying warrior originally named Temujin who united the nomads of Mongolia and conquered a vast Asian empire.
19 Mongol ConquestsFollowing Genghis Khan’s death in 1227, his sons shared control of the vast empire. Although they occasionally battled one another for power, the empire continued to expand.
20 Mongol ConquestsBy 1290, the Mongol Empire stretched from the Pacific Ocean to the Black and Mediterranean seas and from the Himalayan Mountains to the Persian Gulf.The Mongols controlled China, Central Asia, Russia, and parts of the Middle East and Hungary.
23 Life Under the MongolsWomen held more rights under the Mongol Empire than in most other cultures at that time.Mongol men were always preparing for or at war.
24 Life Under the MongolsSo, women took on many economic roles, or roles having to do with money.Some women even served in the army.Women had the right to divorce and to own property.
25 Life Under the MongolsAlthough the Mongols had conquered many people from many lands, they did not impose their language and culture on the people they conquered.Under their rule, people had freedom of religion.
26 Life Under the MongolsKublai Khan was Genghis Khan’s grandson, who completed the conquest of China in 1259 and established himself as the Great Khan.
27 Life Under the MongolsKublai Khan reorganized the government to include both Chinese and foreign officials, and he brought in translators to make it possible for the various cultures in the empire to share ideas.
28 Pax MongolicaIn just 50 years, the Mongols had conquered the largest empire the world had ever known.Now, across their huge kingdom, warfare all but stopped.
29 Key Ideas- The Mongols at Peace The power of the Mongol Empire led to a period of stability that allowed business and trade to grow.Mongols controlled the trade routes and encouraged the exchange of goods and ideas among various cultural regions of their empire.Marco Polo visited China from Europe and was a guest of Kublai Khan. He became an official of the Khan’s government.Marco Polo’s description of China increased the demand for Chinese goods in Europe.
30 Key TermPax Mongolica- Latin for “Mongolian peace.” The term refers to a period of time when all of Eurasia was under the control of the Mongolians, ruled by Genghis Khan.
31 Pax MongolicaThe Mongols established in all the lands they controlled, which included the entire length of the Silk Road.As a result, traders from as far away as Europe could finally journey to China without fear of attack.
32 The Merchants of ChinaVideo- The Merchants of China
33 Polo FamilyAmong the first Europeans to visit China was Marco Polo, who traveled there with his father and his uncle as a teenager.Polo spent 17 years in China, where he impressed Kublai Khan with his intelligence and skill at learning languages.
34 Marco Polo’s BookLater, Polo wrote a book about his travels in China and his experiences in the court of the Great Khan.
35 Marco Polo’s BookThrough Polo’s book, Europeans learned of China’s great wealth as well as the country’s technology, food, plants, and animals.
36 Marco Polo’s BookMarco’s book was translated, or changed, into nearly every European language.Many people could not believe that what he described was true.
37 Marco Polo’s BookThey made fun of him as “Marco of a million lies.” Yet, the book described the journey to China in careful detail.Merchants and travelers used it as a guide well into the 1800s.
38 Marco Polo’s BookMarco Polo’s book about China even inspired future explorers, such as Christopher Columbus, to go in search of the exotic land of Asia.
39 Crash Course- Wait For It...The Mongols! Video- Wait For It...The Mongols!
40 Independent ActivityWhat has been the “muddiest” point so far in this lesson? That is, what topic remains the least clear to you? (4 minutes)
41 Partner ActivityWork with a neighbor and compare your muddiest point with theirs. Compare what things are the same and what things are different? (3 minutes)