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Presentation on theme: "+ Chapter Five: Interorganizational Relationships Jennifer Lee-Plevnik and Krystle Vlasman."— Presentation transcript:

1 + Chapter Five: Interorganizational Relationships Jennifer Lee-Plevnik and Krystle Vlasman

2 + Overview of the Chapter Organizational Ecosystems Interorganizational Framework Resource Dependence Collaborative Networks Population Ecology Institutionalism

3 + Organizational Ecosystems Interorganizational Relationships – the relatively enduring resource transactions, flows, and linkages that occur among two or more organizations Organizational Ecosystem – a system formed by the interaction of a community of organizations and their environment

4 + Microsoft’s Organizational Ecosystem Microsoft Consumer Electronics InformationCommunications Personal Computers

5 + Is Competition Dead? Traditional Competition – a distinct company is competing for survival and supremacy with other stand-alone businesses Coevolution - the evolution of two or more species that interact closely with one another, with each species adapting to changes in the other 1 Wolves and caribou 1

6 + The Changing Role of Management Think about horizontal processes rather than vertical structures Suppliers and customers are now becoming a part of the team through horizontal linkages Use coevolution to work with them

7 + Interorganizational Framework Helps managers switch from top down to horizontal management Characterization: Whether the organizations are similar or dissimilar Whether the relationships are competitive or cooperative Managers can study their environment and adopt strategies to suit their needs

8 + Interorganizational Framework Resource Dependence Population Ecology Collaborative Network Institutionalism Organization Type Dissimilar Organizational Relationship Competitive Cooperative Similar

9 + 1. Resource Dependence Traditional view of relationships Try to minimize their dependence on other organizations Amount of dependence is based on two factors: Importance of the resource Monopoly power

10 + Resource Strategies Alter the interdependent relationships Interlocking directorships Join trade associations Sign trade agreements Merge with another firm Take political action

11 + Power Strategies Large, independent companies have power over small suppliers Ask suppliers to absorb more costs Ship more efficiently Provide more services

12 + 2. Collaborative Networks Traditional: Organizations work alone, believe in individualism and self- reliance Collaborative network: Companies join together to become more competitive and to share scarce resources

13 + Bricks-and-mortar Bought Coles and Chapters Partnership with Blue Nile and iUniverse Created a virtual ecosystem

14 + Why Collaboration? Sharing risks when entering new markets Reducing costs of expensive new programs Enhancing organizational profile Competition can be fierce in some areas while they are cooperating in others Like competing with a sibling Encourages long term investment

15 + From Adversaries to Partners Traditional: AdversarialNew: Partnership * Low dependence * Suspicion, competition, arms length * Detailed performance measures, closely monitored * Price, efficacy, own profits * Limited information and feedback * Legal resolution of conflict * Minimal Involvement and up-front investment, separate resources * Short-term contracts * Contract limiting the relationship * High dependence * Trust, value added to both sides, high commitment * Loose performance measures, problems discussed * Equity, fair dealing, both profit * Electronic linkages to share information, problem feedback, and discussion * Mechanisms for close coordination, people on-site * Involvement in partner’s product design and production, shared resources * Long-term contracts * Business assistance beyond the contract

16 + Example: Bombardier Building a business jet with organizations from all over the world Rely heavily on suppliers for design support and shared development costs and market risks 30 different suppliers 500 design members (250 are from outside suppliers) $250 million invested by Bombardier

17 + 3. Population-Ecology Perspective Population-Ecology Perspective focuses on organizational diversity and adaptation within a population of organizations Population a set of organizations engaged in similar activities with similar patterns of resources utilization and outcomes

18 + Why do New Organizations Form? Adaptation of older organizations limited New organizations bring innovation and change Established organizations become antiquated New organizations form that “fit” the environment

19 + Limitations of Organizational Change Hannan and Freeman said organizations don’t change because: Heavy Investment in: Plants Equipment Specialized Personnel Limited Information Established POV of Decision Makers Historical Organizational Success Difficulty changing organizational culture

20 + Organizational Form and Niche Organizational form: organization’s specific technology, structure, products, goals, and personnel, which can be selected or rejected by the environment Niche: domain of unique environmental resources and needs

21 + Elements in the Population- Ecology Model of Organizations Variation Large number of variations appear in the population of organizations Selection Some organizations find a niche and survive Retention A few organizations grow large and become institutionalized in the environment

22 + Population Ecology Model Assumption: new organizations are always appearing in the population Population change defined by 3 principals: Variation: appearance of new, diverse forms in a population of organizations Selection: whether a new organizational form is suited to the environment and can survive Retention: preservation and institutionalization of selected organizational forms

23 + Strategies for Survival Struggle for existence: organizations are engaged in a competitive struggle over resources, and each organizational form is fighting to survive Birth/survival of new organizational are based on several factors: Urban area % of immigrants Political turbulence Industry growth rate Environmental variability

24 + Strategies for Survival Generalists vs. Specialists Strategy Generalists: organizations with a wide niche or domain, that is, those that offer a broad range of products or services or that serve a broad market Specialists: organizations that provide a narrower range of goods or services or that serve a narrower market

25 + 4. Institutionalism Institutional Perspective: organizations survive and succeed through congruence between an organization and the expectations from its environment Institutional Environment: composed from norms and values from stakeholders Legitimacy: organization's actions are desirable, proper, and appropriate within the environment’s system of norms, values, and beliefs Argues organizations need legitimacy from their customers

26 + Institutional View and Organizational Design Organizations have 2 essential dimensions: Technical Dimension: governed by norms of rationality and efficiency Institutional Dimension: governed by expectations from external environment

27 + Institutional Similarity Institutional Similarity (or Institutional Isomorphism) is the emergence of a common structure and approach among organizations in the same field Three core mechanisms: 1. Mimetic Forces: pressure to copy or model other organizations Explains why fads occur in business world

28 + Institutional Similarity 2. Coercive Forces: external pressures exerted on an organization to adopt structures, techniques, or behaviours similar to other organizations Influenced by: Law New regulation Another organization

29 + Institutional Similarity 3. Normative Forces: pressures to change to achieve standards of professionalism, and to adopt techniques that are considered by the professional community to be up-to- date and effective Universities, consulting firms, trade associations, and professional training institutions develop norms among professionals Companies accept norms through a sense of obligation to have high performance standards Norms almost have a moral/ethical requirement

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