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Online Communication and Business Design & Developed by: EATL.

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1 Online Communication and Business Design & Developed by: EATL

2 Communication Do you ever feel like the only person who doesn't use ? You don't have to feel left out. More than ever, is easy to understand and use. In this lesson, you will learn what is, how it compares to traditional mail, andhow addresses are written. We'll also discuss various types of providers and the features and tools they include with an account. Design & Developed by: EATL

3 Communication correspondence is not as straightforward as it seems. Although it can be a helpful and effective way to communicate with colleagues and clients, it can also be unhelpful and annoying. Below are 10 tips for effective communications. Be clear and specific! Most of us have way too many s and too little time in the day to read and respond to them. Keeping them short and to the point will help maximize the chance they are read (to the end of the message) and minimize the reader pressing “delete” before reading it. Design & Developed by: EATL

4 Communication Be prompt and respond to important . By responding a day or two after an is sent shows you care about the message and the sender. Even if you are not able to attend to something right away, telling the person you received it and when you will attend to is shows professionalism and attentiveness. Use a clear subject line to name/clarify what your is about. Since most of us receive a huge amount of , we need an easy way to know whether to open an , where to file it and which ones need action. The subject line is a helpful tool for this. Add important directional words to the subject line when an needs special attention. Words like “response needed” or “urgent” are helpful in knowing what is expected and by when i.e., “Client contract – confirming dates – response needed” or “Board meeting – draft agenda – response needed by Friday”. Design & Developed by: EATL

5 Communication Be very careful and restrained about forwarding jokes and other non-work related material. Most people don’t appreciate this type of and may get too much already. Keep your work to just that: about your work. Include one topic per . Although you may have numerous things to ask/say, it is best to limit your requests or important news to one per . In this way your subject line can reflect your message and your reader will know where to file it and how to address it (at a glance). Decide carefully who should be cc-ed on . Although you may be sending an as part of group mailing, you should not feel the need to hit “Reply All”. Often sending a response to the sender is enough and it helps minimize clutter for others. Design & Developed by: EATL

6 Communication If you need to clarify or resolve a conflict or a misunderstanding, pick up the phone. Although an automatic reaction, especially if someone has misunderstood something in your , may be to send a quick back,, this is not advisable. is the worst type of conflict resolution and can exacerbate it. Minimize your use of BLOCK or bold to highlight words. Although some of us (especially highly visual people) love playing with visual cues, they can be misunderstood by others (especially if don’t use visual clues). In order to minimize sounding “loud” (often associated with BLOCK) or annoyed (often associated with bold), just use regular font styles – it’s safer. Include an “signature”. It is helpful to have all one’s contact information clearly and easily accessible. There is nothing more frustrating than wanting to phone someone or pass on an organization’s web address, and finding only a name in the signature. Design & Developed by: EATL

7 Introduction Etiquette - Making Introductions Simple Introduction etiquette, How to make introductions or introduce yourself. Examples of introductions also included here. Learning the unspoken rules of introduction etiquette is a useful social skill. Knowing how to introduce yourself or how to introduce others puts you and others at social ease. A great introduction can be the start of a rewarding friendship. Making a good introduction leaves a favourable impression on others. Design & Developed by: EATL

8 Introduction Etiquette - Making Introductions You are probably already practicing the right way to make introductions without knowing it. As these are general guidelines, don't worry about making small mistakes. Most people will overlook them or not even realize your blunder. Design & Developed by: EATL

9 Introduction Etiquette General Guidelines Introduce the 'less-important' to the 'more-important'. What this means: This means you bring the intern across the room to meet your boss. Introduce men to women, and younger to older. Introduce the more familiar to the less familiar (between friends.) Design & Developed by: EATL

10 Eye Contact and Deportment - Introduction Etiquette Look at the person to whom you are making the introduction (the boss, for instance), then turn to the person you are presenting as you finish (the intern). Then back again at the boss. If someone is being introduced to you (presented to you), smile and say, "It is very nice to meet you, Jane." while extending your hand for a handshake *.(*This applies to the appropriate greeting culture and introduction etiquette where it may be kisses or a bow.) Afghan President Hamid Karzai introduces his wife, Dr. Karzai, to Laura Bush outside the presidential residence in Kabul, Afghanistan, Wednesday, March 30, 2005 Design & Developed by: EATL

11 Eye Contact and Deportment - Introduction Etiquette If introductions are made between a man and a woman, a woman usually extends her hand first but nowadays, this is not followed strictly. If you are sitting, the proper introduction etiquette is to stand when a person is being introduced to you. Women today either remain seated (not preferable in my opinion) or do a half stand from her seat at the table, because sometimes the chair is heavy and not easy to move back especially when a woman is dressed in gown. However, if you're sitting on the sofa or anywhere where is not an effort to stand upduring the introduction, please do. Design & Developed by: EATL

12 Handshakes - Handshaking Etiquette In the past, a gentleman would never extend his hand unless a lady extended hers first. Now, the 'highest ranking' tend to extend their hand first. I believe the right approach is to be flexible here. Have a feel and look around at what others are doing. If you're a woman, just go ahead and extend that hand. Of course, I don't think women in general would object to shaking the hand to the man who extended his hand first. Read some of your comments In a group, shake the woman's hand first (if you're a guy). And if you're a woman, shake the hand which is extended to you first. Design & Developed by: EATL

13 Kissing, Air Kissing and Hugging - Greetings Etiquette This depends on the culture and introduction etiquette of the country you're in. Follow the greeting etiquette according to the culture of the country as much as possible. Do as the Romans do. Design & Developed by: EATL

14 Introduction Etiquette of Countries and Cultures Asians (except the Japanese)- a gentle handshake. In some ethnicities, a touch of the hand (like in a handshake) would suffice. Read more about Chinese etiquette. Japanese prefer to make a quick bow. The more important the person, the lower the bow. British - handshake or just a friendly smile. Americans - a firm handshake French - two kisses from the left cheek Italians - handshake or hug and kisses for the women. Spanish - hugs and kisses Swiss - three kisses starting from the left cheek Arabs - men only kiss men, and women only kiss women. Design & Developed by: EATL

15 Introduction Etiquette of Countries and Cultures When in doubt, just let the person of the foreign culture lead. Be obliging. Of course if you are in dominantly in the company of one culture, follow. Don't be fussed if you're not used to getting kissed or hugged, even if you feel that this is your country. It is polite to grin and bear it! Design & Developed by: EATL

16 Introduction Etiquette for Conversation If you are hoping to introduce people for conversation you may add a point of interest in the introduction, or something that both have in common. For example, "Jenny, this is my friend John I'll like you to meet. He is the other person I know of who loves gardening as much as you do!" Or (after formal introduction) "James is the person to talk to if you areinterested in film production." More of this in the article Elegant Sophisticated Woman Design & Developed by: EATL

17 Contacting Someone via In the past, was the best way to communicate with people online. But today, there are many different ways to talk online, allowing you to do things like: Make phone calls from your computer and even see the person you're talking with Share with lots of friends at the same time without sending an to each of them individually Engage with different websites by making comments or posting your own content Over the next several lessons, we'll take a look at some different methods of online communication, including chat, video calling, text messages, and status updates. Design & Developed by: EATL

18 How people communicate online When people are not online, they use a variety of communication methods, including phone calls, written letters, and face-to-face conversation. We use these different methods depending on the situation. Online communication is very similar: People may use instant messaging, video chat, or social networking depending on the situation. You can choose whichever methods best fit your needs. Review the graphic below to get an idea of how a few different people communicate online. Design & Developed by: EATL

19 Staying safe online No matter how you communicate online, you'll need to think about privacy and safety. Each service that we'll discuss has its own privacy settings. It's helpful to review these settings before using any service to avoid revealing your conversations and personal information to a broader audience. Act as if you were communicating offline: Remember, everything you write online is relatively permanent, so even passing comments could have negative consequences for you or someone else in the future. We recommend that you visit our Internet Safety tutorial for more information about staying safe online. Design & Developed by: EATL

20 Social media Social media are computer- mediated tools that allow people to create, share or exchange information, ideas, and pictures/videos invirtual communities and networks. Social media is defined as "a group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content. Design & Developed by: EATL

21 Social media " [1] Furthermore, social media depend on mobile and web-based technologies to create highly interactive platforms through which individuals and communities share, co-create, discuss, and modify user- generated content. They introduce substantial and pervasive changes to communication between businesses,organizations, communities, and individuals. [2] These changes are the focus of the emerging field of technoself studies. Social media are different from traditional or industrial media in many ways, including quality, [3] reach, frequency, usability, immediacy, and permanence. There are many effects that stem from internet usage. [ Design & Developed by: EATL

22 example of a social-media. Facebook Twitter YouTube Tweets containing advertising Skype Mobile social media Mobile social media and business potential E-commerce businesses Design & Developed by: EATL

23 Basic English Writing Skill Cover Letters Crafting Your Cover Letter Introduction You've found the job you want and have spruced up your resume in hopes of getting it. Now all you have to do is submit it, right? Not so fast! Design & Developed by: EATL

24 Basic English Writing Skill Every resume should have a great cover letter to go with it. So what's a cover letter? And why do you need one? This lesson will help you answer these questions as you explore interactive examples. Specifically, you will learn the purpose of a cover letter, identify the main parts of a cover letter, find out what makes a cover letter effective, and use several cover letter dos and don'ts as you write your own cover letter Design & Developed by: EATL

25 Basic English Writing Skill English writing skill What is a cover letter? As discussed in our Resume Writing tutorial, prospective employers use your resume to learn about your education, skills, and work history, as well as who you are and how to reach you. Your cover letter has a slightly different purpose. As the name implies, a cover letter is a document that introduces you and accompanies your resume. It is what a hiring manager will see first. In a competitive job market, hiring managers may get hundreds of resumes for only one position. Going through all of them can be time consuming. To alleviate the time strain, most hiring managers will quickly read over or scan cover letters to decide which resumes to read more closely. Design & Developed by: EATL

26 Basic English Writing Skill Cover letters provide YOU with an opportunity to: Demonstrate how well you express yourself and that you have researched the organization and position Tell prospective employers what position you’re interested in, why you are interested in it, and how you came to know about it Highlight a few key skills that demonstrate your qualifications for the specific organization and position Thank the hiring manager in advance for her time and consideration Design & Developed by: EATL

27 Use good writing techniques. Characteristics of good writing for cover letters include: Using bullet points or bold text to highlight your qualifications Using concise and clear language; keep it to one page and focus on what you have to offer an employer Using correct grammar; have at least two strong writers edit and proofread your cover letter, and do not rely solely on a spell checker Using active verbs in the present tense to illustrate your skills; for example, I consistently exceed customer expectations by offering personal attention and product expertise. Varying your word choice; for example, if your specialty is product line management, try to find another phrase for the same function, such as family branding Design & Developed by: EATL

28 Mistakes to avoid There are several things job seekers can do in their cover letters that can actually hurt their chances of getting an interview. You will want to avoid these mistakes. Don’t write “To Whom It May Concern” or "Dear Sir or Madam". If you don't know the person's name, use something generic and gender neutral, like Candidate Selection Team or Dear Hiring Manager. Don’t use slang, like I crushed the highest sales in my region three years running. Don’t use correction fluid or make corrections after a letter is printed. Reprint your letter if necessary. Don’t write a letter that's longer than one page. Don’t provide false information about yourself or your qualifications. Don't include erroneous information about a company. Don’t include personal information (avoid references to religion, family, etc.). Design & Developed by: EATL

29 You try it! Open the Microsoft Word Cover Letter Template and Save it to your computer with a name that makes sense to you. Enter your own information into the document as you progress through this activity by replacing the text inside the [brackets]. Remove the brackets as well. Design & Developed by: EATL

30 BUSINESS COMMUNICATION: INTRODUCTION 1.1 INTRODUCTION 1.2 ROLE OF COMMUNICATION IN BUSINESS 1.3 DEFINITIONS OF COMMUNICATION 1.4 PURPOSE OF COMMUNICATION 1.5 THE COMMUNICATION SITUATION 1.6 THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS/CYCLE Design & Developed by: EATL

31 BUSINESS COMMUNICATION: The word “communication” derived from the Latin word ‘communicare’ that means to impart, to participate, to share or to make common. It is a process of exchange of facts, ideas, opinions and as a means that individual or organization share meaning and understanding with one another. In other words, it is a transmission and interacting the facts, ideas, opinion, feeling and attitudes. It is the ability of mankind to communicate across barriers and beyond boundaries that has ushered the progress of mankind. It is the ability of fostering speedy and effective communication around the world that has shrunk the world and made ‘globalization’ a reality. Communication had a vital role to play in ensuring that people belonging to a particular country or a culture or linguistic group interact with and relate to people belonging to other countries or culture or linguistic group. Communication adds meaning to human life. It helps to build relationship and fosters love and understanding. It enriches our knowledge of the universe and makes living worthwhile. Design & Developed by: EATL

32 BUSINESS COMMUNICATION: 1.2 ROLE OF COMMUNICATION IN BUSINESS The term business communication is used for all messages that we send and receive for official purpose like running a business, managing an organization, conducting the formal affairs of a voluntary organization and so on. Business communication is marked by formality as against personal and social Design & Developed by: EATL

33 BUSINESS COMMUNICATION: communication. The success of any business to a large extent depends on efficient and effective communication. It takes place among business entities, in market and market places, within organizations and between various group of employees, owners and employees, buyers and sellers, service providers and customers, sales persons and prospects and also between people within the organization and the press2 / Business Communication persons. All such communication impacts business. Done with care, such communication can promote business interests. Otherwise, it will portray the organization in poor light and may adversely affect the business interest. Design & Developed by: EATL

34 BUSINESS COMMUNICATION: Communication is the life blood of any organization and its main purpose is to effect change to influence action. In any organization the main problem is of maintaining effective communication process. The management problem generally results in poor communication. Serious mistakes are made because orders are misunderstood. The basic problem in communication is that the meaning which is actually understood may not be what the other intended to send. It must be realised that the speaker and the listener are two separate individuals having their own limitations and number of things may happen to distort the message that pass between them. When people within the organization communicate with each other, it is internal communication. Design & Developed by: EATL

35 BUSINESS COMMUNICATION: They do so to work as a team and realise the common goals. It could be official or unofficial. Modes of internal communication include face-to face and written communication. Memos, reports, office order, circular, fax, video conferencing, meeting etc. are the examples of internal communication. When people in the organization communicate with anyone outside the organization it is called external communication. These people may be clients or customers, dealers or distributors, media, government, general public etc. are the examples of external communication. Design & Developed by: EATL

36 BUSINESS COMMUNICATION: Communication is the life blood of the business. No business can develop in the absence of effective communication system. Communication is the mortar that holds an organization together, whatever its business or its size. When people within the organization communicate with each other, it is internal communication and when people in the organization communicate with anyone outside the organization it is called external communication. Ability to work well in teams, to manage your subordinates and your relationship with seniors, Design & Developed by: EATL

37 professional ethics How do professional ethics interact with business ethics and morals? In this factsheet we look at how professional ethics interacts with business ethics and morals. Design & Developed by: EATL

38 The difference between morals and ethics Morals relate to what is considered to be right or wrong, normally at the level of the individual. Our upbringing and the environment in which we live usually influence our morals, although some morals may be common to all. For example most of us are likely to believe that murder is morally wrong but may take a different moral stance on other issues such as vegetarianism. Moral codes are complex. An individual might have some principles which they are never prepared to violate such as not condoning the use of violence but the same individual may support other behaviour because “the ends justify the means” – the famous example of Robin Hood stealing from the rich to feed the poor. Design & Developed by: EATL

39 The difference between morals and ethics So opinion may be divided over the morality of a German surgeon recently accused of manipulating his patient’s records to make them appear sicker than they actually were, in order to get them to the top of a liver transplant list. Ethics are about the social system in which morals are applied. The beliefs and value systems of a particular culture or society will govern the standards of behaviour and principles of right and wrong that are socially acceptable within a particular group. The recent case of the Chinese badminton players expelled from the Olympics because they openly tried to lose a qualifying match to ensure an all Chinese ladies final, highlighted the pressure to win medals and differing views about the acceptable methods of doing so. Design & Developed by: EATL

40 Professional vs Business ethics Professional ethics as we have already seen are the personal and corporate standards of behaviour expected of the members of a particular profession. Business ethics are about how any organisation conducts its business. This may include the way in which staff are treated and paid; relationships with suppliers and the consumption of resources. Business ethics will be influenced by the moral standards that a particular society expects businesses to adopt. For example, payments by a business to a political party are permitted in the UK if declared in a company’s accounts but are forbidden in the USA. Society’s expectations drive business ethics at 3 levels: (i) social responsibility (ii) business (iii) individual Design & Developed by: EATL

41 Corporate Social responsibility The first level is about Social responsibility (the macro level) this considers the role of business nationally and internationally and its responsibility to wider society. Unethical behaviour here would include pollution (such as the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico), the promotion and sale of unsafe products (such as tobacco) and the overconsumption of the world’s resources. Over the past decade there has been an increasing drive for sustainability to encourage businesses to meet the needs of the present without compromising the needs and ability of future generations. The more socially responsible organisations recognize this and use it as a source of competitive advantage. So banks like Triodos and the Co-op bank are the ethical trailblazers of the banking industry. Design & Developed by: EATL

42 Corporate Social responsibility Multinational business, Unilever, ran an educational marketing campaign in rural India to educate people about the benefits of good health and hygiene practices including regular hand-washing. As well as benefitting society by improving education this also helped raise awareness of Unilever’s Lifebuoy soap brand thereby creating more users of its product. For more information about corporate social responsibility, look at the downloads section of the AAT ethics site. Design & Developed by: EATL

43 Ethics at the business level The second level of business ethics concerns the way a firm as a whole behaves (company or business level). This looks at the issues facing individual companies when deciding on objectives and strategy. Inappropriate conduct here might include the use of underage labour, the paying of bribes for contracts, the manipulation of financial statements and the exploitation of suppliers - several large supermarkets have come under fire for the abuse of their power in dictating terms and prices to farmers and other smaller suppliers. Many business level transactions have moral dimensions, exacerbated by the fact that ethics varies from one country to another. Is it ethical to adopt practices that are legally permissible in one country that you would not adopt in your own and where do you draw the line? Design & Developed by: EATL

44 Ethics at the business level Perhaps paying workers significantly lower wages than would be reasonable in the UK is acceptable if the wage is still higher than the going rate in that country but is it reasonable to employ child workers because there are different local regulations regarding the minimum age of employment? Such are the dilemmas that have faced many of the world’s biggest brands. In the 1990s there was a global boycott of Nike when it refused to take responsibility for the behaviour of some of its subcontractors who were using child labour. Move to 2011 and after Greenpeace highlighted that its suppliers were dumping toxic waste into the world’s waterways, Nike responded by producing a plan to go toxic free by Design & Developed by: EATL

45 Individual ethics The third level of business ethics is that of the individual and addresses the actions and values of individuals within an organisation. Bad behaviour here might include discrimination, bullying, lying and stealing. In 2012 investment manager Bernie Madoff, a former NASDAQ chairman, was sentenced to 150 years in prison after using his reputation and experience to dupe investors, industry regulators and Wall St banks into investing $billions in his Ponzi scheme. Design & Developed by: EATL

46 The tone at the top In addition to any professional or industry codes that apply, many businesses will have their own code of business ethics to communicate the values and conduct that are expected of the individuals within that organisation and to reduce the risk of unethical actions and behaviour. This is only successful however if the business’ leadership team create the right tone at the top. The Goldman Sachs banker whose resignation letter was printed in the New York Times alleged that within the firm managers routinely referred to clients as muppets and openly discussed in meetings how to rip them off. Design & Developed by: EATL

47 Conclusion So as we can see, businesses can take a wide range of ethical stances. At worst, ethically challenged organisations may take the view that behaviour is acceptable “provided they will never get found out” or “because everyone does it”. However as the world changes, the widespread use of social media increases the likelihood of being caught. A recent example here might be the ethical culture and practices of the media which came under scrutiny in the Leveson inquiry into phone hacking. Today’s customers, employees and even shareholders expect businesses and their leaders to stand for more than just profitability. Those professions and businesses that put ethics at the heart of everything they do, will be the success stories of the future. All of the information that we’ve covered in this factsheet is available as a podcast in the podcast section of the AAT ethics site. Design & Developed by: EATL

48 Odesk bidding process Design & Developed by: EATL

49 Odesk bidding process Design & Developed by: EATL

50 Odesk bidding process Design & Developed by: EATL

51 Odesk bidding process Design & Developed by: EATL

52 Thank You Design & Developed by: EATL


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