Presentation on theme: "Presented by: Rawan Abd El-Salam 5411037 Dina Azzam 5411033 Mai Ahmed 5411083 Hadeer Ahmed 5411094."— Presentation transcript:
Presented by: Rawan Abd El-Salam Dina Azzam Mai Ahmed Hadeer Ahmed
The opining profile suggests that communication is critical factor in the cross-cultural management. Cultural communications are deeper and more complex than spoken or written messages. The essence of effective cross-cultural communication has more to do with releasing the right responses than with sending the Right messages.
The importance of oral communications is that a manager can be able effectively communicate across cultural boundaries will largely determine the success of international business transactions.
Is about meeting global business objectives by tuning in to the cultural dynamics of their local markets. Managers communicate to 1. Co-ordinate activities. 2. Motivate people. 3. Negotiate future plans.
Message Sender NOISE Decoding By Sender (Now Receiver) Medium Encoding Message Receiver (Now Sender) Medium Decoding By Receiver Encoding is sharing the meaning by transmitting messages through the following:
Business people who need to consider another dimension of communication style that can cause noise whether in verbal or non verbal language Are: Those who make their communication personal by showing their emotions openly or using emotional appeals to persuade others. Nonverbal Communication: 1) Behavior that communicates without words. 2) A Picture is worth a thousand words.
Types of nonverbal Communication : Kinesics behavior Proxemics Paralanguage Object language First, Kinesics behavior : Communication through body movements, postures, gestures, facial expressions, and eye contact. Visitors to other countries must be careful about their gestures and how they might be interpreted.
Many businesspeople and visitors react negatively to what they feel are inappropriate facial expressions, without understanding the cultural meaning behind them. Eye Behavior includes differences not only in eye contact but also in the use of eyes to convey other messages. U.S managers aware of many cultural expectations regarding posture and how they may be interpreted. In Europe or Asia a relaxed posture in business meetings may be taken as bad manners. In Korea, you are expected to sit upright with feet squarely on the floor, showing a blending of body and spirit.
Second, Proxemics : Proxemics deals with the influence of Proxemics and space of Communication, both personal space and office space or layout. Space Communications power in both Germany and the United States, evidenced by the desire for a corner office or one on the top floor. South Americans, Southern and Eastern Europeans, Indonesians, and Arabs are High contact cultures, preferring to stand close, touch a great deal, and experience a close sensory involvement. On the other hand, North Americans, Asians, and Northern Europeans are low contact cultures, prefer much less sensory involvement, and touching far less, they have distant style of body language.
High contact cultures are mostly located in warmer climates, and low contact cultures in cooler climates. Americans and Canadians certainly expect a warm handshake and maybe a pat on the back from closer friends. The Japanese considerably less touching, do not shake hands. Third, Paralanguage : Refer to how something is said rather than the content, the rate of speech, the tone and inflection of voice,and laughing.Including Silence.
Americans get impatient, says something to break the silence, and offends the Chinese by interrupting his or her chain of thought and comfort level with the subject. Fourth, Object Language ( Material culture): Refers to how we communicate through material artifacts. whether architecture, office design and furniture, Material culture communicates what people hold as important.
Arabs are warm, emotional, and quick to explode :”sounding off” is regarded as a safety value. The Arabic language aptly communicates the Arabic culture – one of emotional extremes –The language Contains means for over expression. –Words that allow for exaggeration. –Metaphors that emphasize a position. –Many adjectives. –What is said is often not as important as how it is said.
The core of middle eastern the culture are friendship, honor, religion, and traditional hospitality. Family, friends and connections are take precedence over business transactions. Hospitality is a way of life and is highly symbolic. Women play little or no role in business or entertainment – it is a male-dominated society.
Be patient. Recognize the Arab attitude toward time and hospitality—take time to develop friendship and trust, for these are prerequisites for any social or business transactions. Recognize that people and relationships matter more to Arabs than the job, company, or contract—conduct business personally, not by correspondence or telephone.
Japanese Ningensei Style of Communication Indirect verbal and nonverbal communication. Relationship communication. Discourages confrontational strategies. Strategically ambiguous communication. Delayed feedback. Patient, longer term negotiators. Uses fewer words. Distrustful of skilful verbal communicators. Group orientation. U.S. Adversarial Style of Communication More direct verbal and nonverbal communication. More task communication. Confrontational strategies more acceptable. Prefers more to-the-point communication. More immediate feedback. Shorter term negotiators. Favors verbosity. Exalts verbal eloquence. More individualistic orientation.
Cautious, tentative. Complementary communicators. Softer, heart like logic. Sympathetic, empathetic, complex use of pathos. Expresses and decodes complex relational strategies and nuances. Avoids decision making in public. Makes decision in private venues, away from public eye. Decisions via ring and nemawashi (complete consensus process). More assertive, self-assured. More publicly critical communicators. Harder, analytic logic preferred Favors logos, reason. Expresses and decodes complex logos, cognitive nuances. Frequent decision making in public Frequent decisions in public at negotiating tables Decisions by majority rule and public compromise is more commonplace
the main causes of incongruence are : 1) The receiver misinterprets the message. 2) The receiver encodes his or her return message incorrectly. 3) The sender misinterprets the feedback.
1. Respect (conveyed through eye contact, body posture, voice tone and pitch). 2. Interaction posture (the ability to respond to others in a descriptive, non evaluative and nonjudgmental way). 3. Orientation to knowledge (recognizing that one’s knowledge, perception, and beliefs are valid only for oneself and not for everyone else). 4. Empathy. 5. Interaction management. 6. Tolerance for ambiguity. 7. Other-oriented role behavior (one’s capacity to be flexible and to adopt different roles for the sake of greater group cohesion and group communication.
Kim has consolidated the research findings of these characteristics of into two categories: Openness – traits such as open-mindedness, tolerance for ambiguity, and extrovertedness Resilience – traits such as having an internal locus of control, persistence, a tolerance of ambiguity, and resourcefulness