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TLS and E-Mail ITIS 3110. overview Transport Layer Security (TLS) Sending E-Mail o Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP) o A myriad of problems and a.

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Presentation on theme: "TLS and E-Mail ITIS 3110. overview Transport Layer Security (TLS) Sending E-Mail o Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP) o A myriad of problems and a."— Presentation transcript:

1 TLS and ITIS 3110

2 overview Transport Layer Security (TLS) Sending o Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP) o A myriad of problems and a multitude of solutions Inbound o Post Office Protocol (POP) o Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP)

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4 transport layer security Security Protocol Formerly provided by Secure Socket Layer SSL Provides o Authentication o Confidentiality o Integrity Widely used on the Internet

5 tls history SSL originally developed at Netscape SSL Version 2.0 was first public release (1995) SSL Version 3.0 soon followed (1996) o Corrected various security flaws of 2.0 TLS first defined in 1999 o Not backwards compatible with SSL

6 modes of operation TLS has two modes of operation o Implicit o Explicit

7 implicit mode Runs on a separate port from non-encrypted traffic Deprecated from many protocols e.g. HTTP (80/tcp) vs. HTTPS (443/tcp)

8 explicit mode Requires application be TLS aware One port to rule them all Communications start unencrypted o Client sends a ‘STARTTLS’ to initiate encrypted session e.g. IMAP, LDAP, POP3, SMTP

9 tls handshake Client opens connection to server Client and server agree on protocol version Negotiate cryptographic algorithms to use Client authenticates server’s digital certificate o Server can optionally authenticate a client’s certificate Asymmetric encryption used to share session key o Session key is symmetric o Symmetric encryption is faster than asymmetric

10 tls handshake

11 tls: trust Trust is handled by Certificate Authorities (CA) CAs act as a trusted third party Verify your identity and issue a signed certificate SSL clients are usually pre-loaded with trusted CAs e.g. Verisign Certificates are verified by walking the certificate chain to a trusted certificate authority

12 tls: implementations OpenSSL is de facto standard on Linux Has indispensable command line utility Note the Heartbleed vulnerability Heartbleed in itself is not “dangerous” The danger is in other programs that are not securely written E.g. those that do not clear memory of sensitive information after it is not needed anymore.\ Supports connecting to any TLS Socket STARTTLS support for FTP, IMAP, POP3, SMTP GnuTLS is up and coming

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14 How many protocols does it take a geek to send and read ? A. 0 B. 1 C. 2 D. 3 E. 4 or more

15 simple mail transport protocol Mail delivery protocol o Handles submission from users o Handles delivery to other SMTP servers and to user mailboxes ‘Store and forward’

16 smtp history de facto standard for delivering on the Internet Defined by RFC 821 in 1982 o Obsoleted by RFC 2821 in 2001 o Obsoleted by RFC 5321 in 2008 Protocol in use today is known as ESMTP or Extended SMTP

17 smtp ports 25/tcp o Relaying of mail between servers o Submission of mail from users 587/tcp o Submission of mail from users o Newer, not supported by all servers

18 smtp port 587 Access to port 25 often blocked by ISPs and firewalls o Thank SPAM Port 587 was defined as an alternate submission port Not all servers support port 587 Increases mail server security o privilege separation

19 privilege separation Hypothetical example: Port 587 Supports TLS User authentication Port 587 Accepts mail from authenticated users Forwards it to other SMTP servers Port 25 Can accept mail from other SMTP servers If this host is the final destination Port 25 Places mail in users’ mailboxes

20 smtp protocol Simple, text-only protocol Push only: Sender pushes mail to receiver Stops at the recipients server Has few control messages is mainly passed as-is Some info added

21 smtp conversation to send an (client connection to smtp server) 220 ESMTP Postfix HELO mydomain.com 250 Hello mydomain.com MAIL FROM: 250 Ok RCPT TO: 250 Ok DATA 354 End data with. Subject: test message From: To: Hello, This is a test. Goodbye Ok: queued as QUIT 221 Bye The.

22 smtp addressing To: and From: Those “headers” in an body are not really used! The ‘envelope sender’ and ‘envelope recipient’ are used for the addresses Envelope sender: MAIL FROM Envelope recipient: RCPT TO SMTP’s MAIL FROM and RCPT TO Akin to the address on an envelope ’s To: and From: headers Akin to the address on the letterhead in the letter

23 extended smtp SMTP proper has fairly limited capabilities Extended SMTP Allows a smtp client and server to negotiate what extensions to use Some extensions are: TLS encryption User authentication Delivery status notification

24 esmtp conversation (client connections to smtp server) 220 example.hades.lab ESMTP Postfix EHLO example.hades.lab at your service, [ ] 250-SIZE DSN 250-STARTTLS 250-8BITMIME 250-ENHANCEDSTATUSCODES 250-PIPELINING 250 HELP

25 esmtp usage ESMTP should only be attempted if the server’s introduction contains the string ‘ESMTP’ If you want to use ESMTP Send EHLO in place of the HELO in your greeting The server will return a list of supported extensions The client can use any supported extension presented S upported by the client, that is

26 selected esmtp extensions SIZE int server will accept any under int size DSN client can request delivery status notification of the server e.g. notify when the mail is delivered to a user’s mailbox AUTH server supports user authentication

27 selected esmtp extensions STARTTLS Server supports encryption Using STARTTLS resets connection to the initial state on an encrypted socket EHLO must be reissued Note: Server may support different ESMTP extensions once STARTTLS has been issued

28 selected esmtp extensions PIPELINING o server supports client sending certain commands in batches without waiting for the server to acknowledge every command individually

29 determining smtp server We have talked a lot about the protocol, but not how to choose what server to send an to Two basic methods: o Smart host o All mail is forwarded to a single mail server o Configured by the administrator o Envelope sender o MX record for envelope sender’s domain is looked up via DNS

30 mx records MX records list valid mail servers and their priority Lower (numeric) priority servers are used first Servers with the same priority are accessed in a round-robin fashion Servers with higher priorities are only used if lower servers can not be contacted

31 example mx record uncc.edu. 643 IN MX 10 mxb gslb.pphosted.com. uncc.edu. 643 IN MX 40 ironhost1.uncc.edu. uncc.edu. 643 IN MX 40 ironhost2.uncc.edu. uncc.edu. 643 IN MX 10 mxa gslb.pphosted.com. Notes: Records can be in any order Smaller numbers get priority If a small number MX is not available mail goes to next larger number If a number is repeated the servers are treated equally, round-robin Which server gets the second ? If the network to gslb.pphosted.com sub-domain is down which server gets the first ? o The second? o The third?

32 smtp headers SMTP servers typically add many headers to an Some are familiar: CC, BCC, Date, From, To, Subject Most are hidden by mail clients

33 smtp headers Received o Shows the path a message travelled o Every server that touches an prepends this header o Contains a lot of information about each server

34 smtp headers Received: from exfe03.its.uncc.edu ([ ]) by EXEVS01.its.uncc.edu with Microsoft SMTPSVC( ); Tue, 8 Feb :21: Received: from mx0a pphosted.com ([ ]) by exfe03.its.uncc.edu with Microsoft SMTPSVC( ); Tue, 8 Feb :21: Received: from pps.filterd (m [ ]) by mx0a pphosted.com (8.14.4/8.14.4) with SMTP id p18HAASb for ; Tue, 8 Feb :21: Received: from mailserver3.caci.com (mailserver3.caci.com [ ]) by mx0a pphosted.com with ESMTP id ub8ru8c2t-1 (version=TLSv1/SSLv3 cipher=RC4-SHA bits=128 verify=NOT) for ; Tue, 08 Feb :21: Received: from excas-hub01.caci.com ([ ]) by mailserver3.caci.com with ESMTP/TLS/AES128-SHA; 08 Feb :21: Received: from exclu05.caci.com ([fe80::b88b:dd8b:f8d7:95d2]) by excas-hub01.caci.com ([ ]) with mapi; Tue, 8 Feb :21:

35 smtp headers Reply-To o address that replies should be sent to o May be different than From: address Thread-Topic, Thread-Index o Help threaded mail clients keep track of related conversations

36 Which mail server would get the second received mail on the system: A. ironhost1.uncc.edu. B. ironhost2.uncc.edu. C. mxa gslb.pphosted.com. D. mxb gslb.pphosted.com. … uncc.edu. 643 IN MX 10 mxb gslb.pphosted.com. uncc.edu. 643 IN MX 40 ironhost1.uncc.edu. uncc.edu. 643 IN MX 40 ironhost2.uncc.edu. uncc.edu. 643 IN MX 10 mxa gslb.pphosted.com. … 30 sec countdown

37 multipurpose internet mail extensions MIME is an encapsulation method Most is MIME encapsulated Used for: attachments HTML inline images non US-ASCII character encodings Use not limited to

38 mime One mime can encapsulate multiple objects: o in pure text o in HTML o Inline Images o Attachments

39 mime encodings Each part of a MIME message has an associated encoding Default encoding is 7bit, same as SMTP Other available encodings are: 8bit quoted-printable base64 binary

40 mime encodings 7bit o Only 7 bits of every octet in the content are important o Implies text is only ASCII 8bit o All 8 bits in every octet of the content are important and must be preserved o May be binary or extented character sets

41 mime encodings quoted-printable o Content is mostly 7bit US-ASCII o Non 7bit characters are encoded to satisfy 7bit encoding binary o All bits of every octet are used by the content o No character translation should occur o Not useful with SMTP as SMTP server may not honor it

42 smtp security Historically SMTP servers have had horrible security 2 November The Morris Worm o First acknowledged worm on the internet o Attacked vulnerabilities in sendmail and finger

43 sendmail Sendmail: Original mailer daemon Avoid using it if at all possible o Any program that requires a macro language to generate its configuration is too complex Many alternatives exist We will be using postfix in the lab

44 problems with Message Source (original sender) Message Integrity (tampering) Message Confidentiality (spying)

45 spam Unwanted , exists because it is profitable Abuses many parts of SMTP to send mail o Forging sender and headers o Using open relays May utilize botnets of hacked machines to send large volumes of mail

46 blacklist Database mail servers can consult to block addresses from sending o Usually IP addresses o e.g database of known SPAM hosts or database of cable modems Reactive technology: A host must do something wrong to be added to a blacklist Often implemented using DNS o Records are stored using reverse IP

47 spamhaus.org Example DNS blacklist service Provide ‘zen block list’ Combination of several of their block lists ‘dig zen.spamhaus.org’ o Looks up in the zen block list o

48 whitelist Database of addresses that are always permitted to send o Usually addresses Often implemented as A text file or simple database On the mail server

49 greylisting Method to temporarily reject an inbound messages from unknown senders Server sends a transient error to sender o e.g. ‘Mailbox temporarily unavailable’ Envelope sender is added to a whitelist after a waiting period has elapsed (e.g. 5 minutes)

50 greylisting Works because SPAM systems rarely retry to send E- Mail delayed by transient failures o Standard servers will retry for up to several days Can delay mail anywhere from 15 minutes to four hours o Depends on time taken to add sender to whitelist and retry interval of sender

51 Sender policy framework

52 sender policy framework Client validation system Verifies envelope sender is permitted to send mail on behalf of the domain Only verifies IP address in practice Aims to prevent rogue mail servers SPF provides no information about the contents of an

53 sender policy framework More description of SPF on separate slides Extra set of slides You will be responsible to be able to decipher SPF records

54 how spf works SPF is stored in DNS A SPF record type is available Its use is not widespread Using a TXT record is more common

55 how spf works A SPF record designates permitted and rejected sender(s) for a domain Mail from a non-permitted sender may be safely rejected

56 what spf checks SPF evaluation performed on two pieces of information Client address Client IP address Client is retrieved or derived from Envelope sender (MAIL FROM) HELO/EHLO host name

57 what spf checks Evaluation is always performed on envelope sender Evaluation should be performed twice if envelope sender and HELO domains differ The RFC is unclear on how to merge the results of the evaluations Likely that the ‘best’ outcome is accepted

58 reading spf records Always start with ‘ v=spf1 ’ Read left-to right Evaluation stops when a mechanism is matched Last element of a SPF record should always be an ‘all’ or a ‘redirect’ If no mechanisms are matched, the result returned is ‘Neutral’

59 example spf records (Note: this is 3 lines wrapped) gmail.com. 300 IN TXT "v=spf1 redirect=_spf.google.com" _spf.google.com. 107 IN TXT "v=spf1 ip4: /19 ip4: /19 ip4: /20 ip4: /18 ip4: /17 ip4: /20 ip4: /16 ip4: /20 ip4: /20 ip4: /16 ?all” hotmail.com IN TXT "v=spf1 include:spf-a.hotmail.com include:spf- b.hotmail.com include:spf-c.hotmail.com include:spf-d.hotmail.com ~all"

60 spf header SMTP servers should add a ‘Received-SPF’ header to any where a SPF record was checked The Received-SPF header should contain the result of the SPF check

61 example spf headers Received-SPF: Pass (mybox.example.org: domain of designates as permitted sender) receiver=mybox.example.org; client-ip= ; envelope-from= ; helo=foo.example.com; Received-SPF: Fail (mybox.example.org: domain of does not designate as permitted sender) identity=mailfrom; client-ip= ; envelope-from= ;

62 spf example

63 Example shows SMTP server acting on SPF directly Some servers may still accept mail and use SPF result in SPAM calculations Some servers may ignore SPF entirely Client IP Server’s Response Client IPServer’s Response reject mail accept mail

64 spf limitations Only works well if everyone uses it Only prevents mail from unauthorized hosts Even then only if servers check it Does not verify the sender, only their domain Does not verify the contents of a message SPAM can (and will) still find a way

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66 sender id Microsoft Sender ID is a superset of SPF MS owns the patents Many open-source projects are wary of implementing it despite Microsoft’s promises

67 sender id Sender ID has two modes of operation mfrom - validates envelope sender, just like SPF pra - validates Purported Responsible Address

68 sender id’s pra Purported Responsible Address is address of most likely responsible party Derived by applying heuristics to a number typical headers o Defined in RFC 4407

69 sender id problems Sender ID violates SPF specification by trying to use a SPF record to verify the PRA Recommended practice is to add an empty Sender ID PRA record to prevent evaluation of your SPF record in determining PRA o ‘spf2.0/pra ?all’

70 sender id recommendations (per jason watson) I do not feel it adds much value to pure SPF I recommend a neutral PRA record to prevent unintended consequences of Sender ID evaluating your SPF record mfrom will still evaluate your SPF record in the same manner as pure SPF

71 Misc.

72 reading Many Legacy UNIX mail readers access the mail spool directly Only works locally on the mail server Useful for debugging

73 local mail readers mail The original, brain-dead reader mutt Decent command line mail reader For a certain definition of ‘decent’ less When all else fails you can read the mail spool directly (/var/spool/mail/$USER)

74 post office protocol POP3 is a mail retrieval protocol tcp/110 Mainly used by ISPs Messages are usually downloaded to client Deleted from server after download Only designed to support one user using one device

75 internet message access protocol IMAP is a mail access protocol tcp/143 Used by universities and corporations Messages are stored on server

76 imap features Supports multiple clients and concurrent access Note: that is for a single user Message state (e.g. unread, flagged) is stored on the server Supports organizing mail into folders


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