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McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Chapter 12 Point-to-Point Access: PPP
McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Two devices can be connected by a dedicated link or a shared link. Dedicated link between two devices point-to-point access. Connections to ISP via traditional modem or cable modem or DSL modem requires some protocol to manage and control the transfer the data. These modems provide physical connections only. PPP Services Format of the frame Negotiate the establishment of the link and the exchange of data How network layer data are encapsulated in the data link frame How two devices can authenticate each other.
McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 12.1 PPP Frame Frame Format Flag = 01111110; Identify the boundary of PPP frame. Address is always Broadcast because of point-to- point link. Control field  = No sequence numbers and so no flow or error control Protocol field = What is being carried in the data field: user data or other information. FCS [Frame Check Sequence] = 2-byte or 4-byte CRC
McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Transition States Idle: No active carrier, line is quiet. Establishing: When one endpoint starts communication, connection goes to establishing state. Negotiation of options.
McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Protocol Stack Link Control Protocol Responsible for establishing, maintaining, configuring, and terminating links. Negotiation mechanisms. LCP occurs in Establishing or terminating state LCP packets are carried in the data field of PPP frames. Authentication Protocols Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) Network Control Protocol
McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 LCP LCP has code, ID [identify request and reply], Length [length of entire LCP packet], Information [extra information needed for LCP packets – authentication protocol, maximum receive unit, etc.]. Code Configuration packets: Configure-request, Configure- ack, Configure-nak [negative ack certain options], Configure-reject Link Termination packets: Terminate-request, Terminate-ack Link monitoring and debugging packets: Code-reject, Protocol-reject, Echo-request [monitor link], Echo- reply, Discard-request [loopback by sender].
McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) Send user name and password Check validity and accept or deny. Access to the link can get the user name and password.
McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 12.6 PAP packets PAP has protocol field value of C023 in PPP frame. Three PAP-packets: authenticate-request, authenticate-ack and authenticate-nak.
McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) Three-way handshake. Password is never sent online. System sends a challenge packet containing challenge value, usually a few bytes User applies predefined function with challenge value, user’s password. The result is sent as response. System does the same as user and compares the result.
McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 12.8 CHAP packets CHAP has protocol field value of C223 in PPP frame. Four CHAP-packets: challenge, response, success, failure.
McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 12.9 IPCP packet encapsulated in PPP frame Network Control Protocol is a set of control protocols to allow the encapsulation of data coming from network layer protocols into the PPP frame. The set of packets that establish and terminate a network layer connection for IP packets is called Internetwork Protocol Control Protocol (IPCP). Negotiation is done both at data link and network layers. Use configure-request to negotiate with the other party. Ex., to set the IP addresses and so on. If there is IP data, then protocol field is 0021. After data transfer is complete, IPCP can take control and use terminate-request and terminate-ack packets to end network connection.
McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 Table 12.3 Code value for IPCP packets CodeIPCP Packet 01Configure-request 02Configure-ack 03Configure-nak 04Configure-reject 05Terminate-request 06Terminate-ack 07Code-reject
McGraw-Hill©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 12.10 An example
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