Past Research Sparked our interest… Handshaking, Gender, Personality, and First Impressions, by Chaplin et al., (2000) Handshaking, Personality, and Psychopathology in Psychiatric Patients, a Reliability and Correlational Study, by Åström, et al., (1993)
Purpose Examine how differences in scripts affects the participants’ handshaking characteristics Examine how the gender of both the researchers and of the participants affects the participants’ handshaking characteristics
Hypotheses Locus of Control & Self-Esteem Script Gender Participant Researcher
Participants 42 Undergraduate General Psychology Students 12 Males & 30 Females Mean age = 19.40 years All participants were treated according to APA ethical guidelines
Materials Scripts Casual Formal Surveys Used Locus of Control Rotter’s Internal- External Control Scale Self-Esteem New York State Self- Esteem Scale Handshake Rating Scale Likert Scale from 1-5 Grip Strength Duration Video Cameras
Scripts Casual Thanks for coming today. How’s your day going? All right, before we get started, the Psych Dept. wants you to fill out these forms so that you will get credit for doing this. It’ll only take a second. All right, now you will be filling out two surveys about your personality and self-esteem. Don’t worry about them, just fill it out the best you can. We just want to find out some information about your personality and your self-esteem. When you are done, just let me know. Okay, you can go ahead and get started.
Scripts Formal This study is investigating personality traits. You will be asked to fill out multiple-item surveys on personality and self-esteem, as honestly as possible. When you are finished, please turn your completed surveys into the experimenter in the front of the room. All your responses will remain anonymous. The surveys contain no marker, so your name will not be associated with any responses or results. You will be classified by gender, and a randomly assigned participant identification number will be given to your survey. Your participation is voluntary and you may stop at any time without penalty. If you have any questions, please feel free to ask one of the experimenters. Before we begin, however, I need you to fill out these forms for the Psychology Department in order for you to receive for this experiment. Thank you for your time and participation.
Design 2x2x2 Factorial Design Completely Between-Subject Design Participants individually run Raters blind to script
Conditions Female Ss, Casual script, Female Rs Female Ss, Formal script, Female Rs Female Ss, Casual script, Male Rs Female Ss, Formal script, Male Rs Male Ss, Casual script, Female Rs Male Ss, Formal script, Female Rs Male Ss, Casual script, Male Rs Male Ss, Formal script, Male Rs
Handshake Training Pre-established self-rated scale Researchers handshake based on consistent comparison scale
Procedure Individual Ss brought into room Instructions and Surveys given by Rs according to script condition Upon completion of surveys, Rater entered room and performed handshake Rater immediately scored handshake Ss was then debriefed
Evaluation of Hypotheses Internal/External Locus of Control & Self- Esteem No significant results Script Main effect Marginal interaction with Gender Interaction with Gender of Rs Marginal interaction with Gender & Gender of Rs
Gender of Ss Marginal interaction with Script Interaction of Gender of Rs Marginal interaction with Script & Gender of Rs Gender of Rs Main effect Interaction of Gender Interaction of Script Marginal interaction with Gender & Script Evaluation of Hypotheses, con’t.