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Handshake: Effects of Environment and Gender. Introduction.

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Presentation on theme: "Handshake: Effects of Environment and Gender. Introduction."— Presentation transcript:

1 Handshake: Effects of Environment and Gender

2 Introduction

3 Past Research  Sparked our interest…  Handshaking, Gender, Personality, and First Impressions, by Chaplin et al., (2000)  Handshaking, Personality, and Psychopathology in Psychiatric Patients, a Reliability and Correlational Study, by Åström, et al., (1993)

4 Purpose  Examine how differences in scripts affects the participants’ handshaking characteristics  Examine how the gender of both the researchers and of the participants affects the participants’ handshaking characteristics

5 Hypotheses  Locus of Control & Self-Esteem  Script  Gender  Participant  Researcher

6 Method

7 Participants  42 Undergraduate General Psychology Students  12 Males & 30 Females  Mean age = years  All participants were treated according to APA ethical guidelines

8 Materials  Scripts  Casual  Formal  Surveys Used  Locus of Control  Rotter’s Internal- External Control Scale  Self-Esteem  New York State Self- Esteem Scale  Handshake Rating Scale  Likert Scale from 1-5  Grip  Strength  Duration  Video Cameras

9 Scripts  Casual Thanks for coming today. How’s your day going? All right, before we get started, the Psych Dept. wants you to fill out these forms so that you will get credit for doing this. It’ll only take a second. All right, now you will be filling out two surveys about your personality and self-esteem. Don’t worry about them, just fill it out the best you can. We just want to find out some information about your personality and your self-esteem. When you are done, just let me know. Okay, you can go ahead and get started.

10 Scripts  Formal This study is investigating personality traits. You will be asked to fill out multiple-item surveys on personality and self-esteem, as honestly as possible. When you are finished, please turn your completed surveys into the experimenter in the front of the room. All your responses will remain anonymous. The surveys contain no marker, so your name will not be associated with any responses or results. You will be classified by gender, and a randomly assigned participant identification number will be given to your survey. Your participation is voluntary and you may stop at any time without penalty. If you have any questions, please feel free to ask one of the experimenters. Before we begin, however, I need you to fill out these forms for the Psychology Department in order for you to receive for this experiment. Thank you for your time and participation.

11 Handshaking Rating Scale Strength limpfirm Duration shortlong Grip incompletecomplete

12 Design  2x2x2 Factorial Design  Completely Between-Subject Design  Participants individually run  Raters blind to script

13 Conditions  Female Ss, Casual script, Female Rs  Female Ss, Formal script, Female Rs  Female Ss, Casual script, Male Rs  Female Ss, Formal script, Male Rs  Male Ss, Casual script, Female Rs  Male Ss, Formal script, Female Rs  Male Ss, Casual script, Male Rs  Male Ss, Formal script, Male Rs

14 Handshake Training  Pre-established self-rated scale  Researchers handshake based on consistent comparison scale

15 Procedure  Individual Ss brought into room  Instructions and Surveys given by Rs according to script condition  Upon completion of surveys, Rater entered room and performed handshake  Rater immediately scored handshake  Ss was then debriefed

16 Results

17  Multiple ANOVAs  Internal/External Locus of Control  Gripp =.43NS  Strengthp =.44NS  Durationp =.77NS  Averagep =.61NS

18  Multiple ANOVAs  Self-Esteem (high/low)  Gripp =.68NS  Strengthp =.81NS  Durationp =.74NS  Averagep =.97NS Results, con’t.

19 Results - Grip  Main Effects  Genderp =.93NS  Scriptp =.06*  Gender of Rsp =.003*  2-way Interactions  Gender & Scriptp =.07*  Gender & Gender of Rsp =.07*  Script & Gender of Rsp =.16NS

20 Grip, con’t.  3-way Interactions  Gender, Script & Gender of Rs  p =.19NS

21 Grip Graph

22 Results - Strength  Main Effects  Genderp =.51NS  Scriptp =.02*  Gender of Rsp =.03*  2-way Interactions  Gender & Scriptp =.02*  Gender & Gender of Rsp =.04*  Script & Gender of Rsp =.07*

23 Strength, con’t.  3-way Interaction  Gender, Script, & Gender of Rs  p =.21NS

24 Strength Graph

25 Results - Duration  Main Effects  Genderp =.09*  Scriptp =.17NS  Gender of Rsp =.02*  2-way Interactions  Gender & Scriptp =.62NS  Gender & Gender of Rsp =.20NS  Script & Gender of Rsp =.03*

26 Duration, con't.  3-way Interaction  Gender, Script & Gender of Rs  p =.02*

27 Duration Graph

28 Results - Average  Main Effects  Genderp =.799NS  Scriptp =.03*  Gender of Rsp =.005*  2-way Interactions  Gender & Scriptp =.06*  Gender & Gender of Rsp =.05*  Script & Gender of Rsp =.04*

29 Average, con’t.  3-way Interaction  Gender, Script & Gender of Rs  p =.07*

30 Average Graph

31 Evaluation of Hypotheses  Internal/External Locus of Control & Self- Esteem  No significant results  Script  Main effect  Marginal interaction with Gender  Interaction with Gender of Rs  Marginal interaction with Gender & Gender of Rs

32  Gender of Ss  Marginal interaction with Script  Interaction of Gender of Rs  Marginal interaction with Script & Gender of Rs  Gender of Rs  Main effect  Interaction of Gender  Interaction of Script  Marginal interaction with Gender & Script Evaluation of Hypotheses, con’t.

33 What it all means...  “It Depends”

34 Discussion

35  Implications  First Impressions  Interview Settings  Cross-cultural Understanding  Others Understanding the “American” handshake

36 Discussion, con’t.  Shortcomings  Expose to all conditions  “Backpack Factor”  Operationally Define Casual & Formal Script

37 Discussion, con’t.  Future Research  Cultural Background Differences  Manipulate Environment  Different Age Groups

38 Conclusion

39 QUESTIONS??


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