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The Handshake of Doctor Claparède Contributor© POSbase 2003
The case study of Claparède (1911):Claparède (1911): Every morning, the neuropsychiatrist Eduard Claparède visited his patients and shaked hands with them. One patient, an edlerly lady, suffered from Korsakoff‘s syndrome and was evidently unable to learn new information. One day, Claparède hid a pin in his hand. The following morning, the lady refused to shake hands with him, without being able to say why she did that. Apparently, she learned the information that shaking hands with Doctor Claparède hurts, but she was unable to verbalize this information. The Handshake of Doctor Claparède © POSbase 2003
Explicit memory: Conscious retrieval of stored information Implicit memory: Unconscious effects of past experience The case study of Claparède and subsequent research into different forms of memory led to the distinction of two forms of memory:memory The Handshake of Doctor Claparède © POSbase 2003
Direct memory tasks: Free Recall Free Recall Cued Recall Cued Recall Recognition Recognition Indirect memory tasks: Word-fragment completion Word-fragment completion Word-stem completion Perceptual identification Perceptual clarification There are several tasks to examine the different forms of memory: The Handshake of Doctor Claparède © POSbase 2003
Effect on direct memory tasks but not indirect memory tasks:direct memory tasksindirect memory tasks Amnesia (Warrington & Weisskrantz, 1970) Amnesia Levels of Processing (Jacoby & Dallas, 1981) Retention interval (Tulving et al., 1982)Tulving et al., 1982 Age (Light & Singh, 1987) Effect on indirect memory tasks but not direct memory tasks:indirect memory tasksdirect memory tasks Modality (Roediger & Blaxton, 1987) Typography (Blaxton, 1989) The distinction between explicit and implicit memory has been supported by demonstrations of dissociations between direct and indirect memory tasks:dissociations The Handshake of Doctor Claparède © POSbase 2003
Illusions of familiarity (Jacoby & Whitehouse, 1989; Whittlesea, 1993) Affective preference (Kunst-Wilson & Zajonc, 1980)Kunst-Wilson & Zajonc, 1980 False fame (Jacoby et al., 1989)Jacoby et al., 1989 False truth (Brown & Nix, 1996; Hasher et al., 1977)Brown & Nix, 1996Hasher et al., 1977 Performance judgments (Kelley & Jacoby, 1996)Kelley & Jacoby, 1996 Metacognitive judgments (Begg et al., 1989) Judgments of time (Witherspoon & Allan, 1985)Witherspoon & Allan, 1985 Unintended plagiarism (Brown & Murphy, 1989; Marsh et al., 1997)Marsh et al., 1997 The Handshake of Doctor Claparède The distinction between explicit and implicit memory is related to other phenomena, such as: © POSbase 2003
The False Fame-Effect The study of Jacoby et al. (1989):Jacoby et al. (1989): How do people become famous? Research into mechanisms of implicit memory.
False Truth The experiment of Brown and Nix (1996):Brown and Nix (1996): Research indicates that repeated exposure to statements enhances the rated truth.
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Memory I Explicit/Implicit Memory Amnesia Encoding Specifity Principle.
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Human Memory II. Acquisition and Retrieval Presumably, we put information into LTM with the idea that we might want to access it at a later time. If,
Implicit versus explicit memory: Definitions implicit memory: past experiences influence perceptions, thoughts and actions without awareness of person.
The Deese-Roediger-McDermott Effect Roediger and McDermott (1995)Roediger and McDermott (1995) replicated and extended the study by Deese (1959).Deese.
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Long-Term-Memory © POSbase 2003Contributor In long-term memory (abbreviated as LTM), information is stored from seconds to years, until its retrieval.
DESIGNING A MEMORY EXPERIMENT Manipulation versus control Whose memory will we study? –Effects of age, gender, disorders, expertise What state are they.
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Automatic Processes Jones Kunda Bargh & Chartrand Automatic Processes & Memory in Social Cognition By: The Anonymi.
Episodic Memory (memory for episodes; also called autobiographical memory) Encoding Retrieval Encoding x Retrieval interactions Amnesia/Implicit memory.
Chapter 6 Long-Term Memory: Structure. Some Questions to Consider How does damage to the brain affect the ability to remember what has happened in the.
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Implicit Memory SNU CSE Son, Suil. Contents Question implicit memory vs. explicit memory Various ways of Experiment Can learning occur without.
1 Long-Term Memory Introduction STM versus LTM Episodic Memory Semantic Memory Procedural Memory Encoding in Long-Term Memory Depth of Processing.
What is Perceptual Fluency? The study of Reber et al. (2004):Reber et al. (2004) Perceptual fluency is the subjective experience of ease with which an.
Last Lecture Frontal Lobe Anatomy Frontal Lobe Anatomy Inhibition and voluntary control Inhibition and voluntary control A model task: working memory A.
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Visual processing in Working Memory The experiment of Brandimonte et al. (1992):Brandimonte et al. (1992): The visuo-spatial sketchpad is part of working.
Mood-congruent memory and judgment The experiment by Forgas and Bower (1987):Forgas and Bower (1987): Participants were given false feedback about success.
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H.M. Bilateral hippocampectomy Anterograde vs retrograde amnesia.
The experiment by Smith et al. (1978):Smith et al. (1978): It has been been shown that retention of learned materials is best when the environmental context.
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