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The Handshake of Doctor Claparède Contributor© POSbase 2003
The case study of Claparède (1911):Claparède (1911): Every morning, the neuropsychiatrist Eduard Claparède visited his patients and shaked hands with them. One patient, an edlerly lady, suffered from Korsakoff‘s syndrome and was evidently unable to learn new information. One day, Claparède hid a pin in his hand. The following morning, the lady refused to shake hands with him, without being able to say why she did that. Apparently, she learned the information that shaking hands with Doctor Claparède hurts, but she was unable to verbalize this information. The Handshake of Doctor Claparède © POSbase 2003
Explicit memory: Conscious retrieval of stored information Implicit memory: Unconscious effects of past experience The case study of Claparède and subsequent research into different forms of memory led to the distinction of two forms of memory:memory The Handshake of Doctor Claparède © POSbase 2003
Direct memory tasks: Free Recall Free Recall Cued Recall Cued Recall Recognition Recognition Indirect memory tasks: Word-fragment completion Word-fragment completion Word-stem completion Perceptual identification Perceptual clarification There are several tasks to examine the different forms of memory: The Handshake of Doctor Claparède © POSbase 2003
Effect on direct memory tasks but not indirect memory tasks:direct memory tasksindirect memory tasks Amnesia (Warrington & Weisskrantz, 1970) Amnesia Levels of Processing (Jacoby & Dallas, 1981) Retention interval (Tulving et al., 1982)Tulving et al., 1982 Age (Light & Singh, 1987) Effect on indirect memory tasks but not direct memory tasks:indirect memory tasksdirect memory tasks Modality (Roediger & Blaxton, 1987) Typography (Blaxton, 1989) The distinction between explicit and implicit memory has been supported by demonstrations of dissociations between direct and indirect memory tasks:dissociations The Handshake of Doctor Claparède © POSbase 2003
Illusions of familiarity (Jacoby & Whitehouse, 1989; Whittlesea, 1993) Affective preference (Kunst-Wilson & Zajonc, 1980)Kunst-Wilson & Zajonc, 1980 False fame (Jacoby et al., 1989)Jacoby et al., 1989 False truth (Brown & Nix, 1996; Hasher et al., 1977)Brown & Nix, 1996Hasher et al., 1977 Performance judgments (Kelley & Jacoby, 1996)Kelley & Jacoby, 1996 Metacognitive judgments (Begg et al., 1989) Judgments of time (Witherspoon & Allan, 1985)Witherspoon & Allan, 1985 Unintended plagiarism (Brown & Murphy, 1989; Marsh et al., 1997)Marsh et al., 1997 The Handshake of Doctor Claparède The distinction between explicit and implicit memory is related to other phenomena, such as: © POSbase 2003
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