3Cells Every living thing has at least one cell. Some have only one and some have trillions.Most cells are too tiny to be seen without a microscope.A chicken egg is one of the largest cells.Not all cells look or act the same.You have 200 different kinds of cells: blood cells, bone cells, muscle cells …………
4TissuesA tissue is a group of cells working together to perform a specific job in the body. The material around and between the cells is also part of the tissue.Examples of tissue: red blood cells, fat, and muscle
5OrgansWhen two or more tissues work together to perform a specific job, the group of tissues is called an organ.Examples of organs: stomach, heart, intestines, liver, lung, and skinPlants also have different kinds of tissues that work together. A leaf is a plant organ that contains tissue that traps light energy to make food.Examples of plant organs: stem and roots
7The SkinThe skin is the body’s largest organ. An average-sized person’s skin has a mass of about 4.5 kg (almost 10 pounds!).
8Brain FoodThe part of the skin, hair, and nails that we can see is DEAD tissue. Isn’t it strange that we put so much effort into making sure our dead cells look nice?
9Organ SystemsOrgans work together in groups to perform particular jobs. These groups are called organ systems.Each system has a specific job to do in the body.Examples:digestive system breaks down food to use by your body’s cellsnervous system transmits information back in forth between the brain and other parts of the body
10There are 11 main organ systems. The organs in the organ system depend on each other. If any part of the system fails, the whole system is affected. And failure of one organ system can affect other organ systems.Main organ systems : integumentary system, skeletal system, muscular system, nervous system, endocrine system, cardiovascular system, lymphatic system, respiratory system, digestive system, urinary system, reproductive system
11Organism: Independent Living Anything that can live on its own is called an organism.All organisms are made up of at least one cell.organisms made up of one cell – unicellularorganisms made up of groups of cells – multicellular
12The Big PictureAlthough unicellular and multicellular organisms can live on their own, they usually do not live alone. Organisms interact with each other on many different ways.Populations – groups of organisms that are of the same kind and that live in the same areaExample – all the white tail deer in the forestCommunities - two or more different populations living in the same areaAll the populations combined in the forest (deer, rabbits, snakes, etc..)Ecosystems – all the communities and all the nonliving things that affect it, such as water, soil, rocks, temperature, and lightEcosystems on land – terrestrial ecosystemsEcosystems in water – aquatic ecosystems
15Seeing the first cellsRobert Hooke – British scientist – used cork (soft plant tissue found in the bark of a tree) – He saw tiny boxes and called them cells.
16Early discoveries1673 – Anton van Leeuwenhoek – Dutch merchant – used a handmade microscope to look at pond scum – He saw many small creatures. He also looked at blood from animals and teeth scrapings. First to see bacteria and discovered that yeast is a unicellular organism.
17The Cell TheoryMatthias Schleiden – 1838 – all plant parts are made of cellsTheodore Swann – wrote the first part of the cell theory.All organisms are composed of one or more cells.The cell is the basic unit of life in all living things.1858 – Rudolf Virchow – wrote the third part of the cell theoryAll cells come from existing cells
18All cells have:Cell membrane- surrounds all cells; acts as a barrier between the inside of the cell and its environment; controls what comes in and what goes outHereditary material – cells receive a copy of hereditary material (DNA) It controls all of the activities of the cell and contains the information needed for that cell to make new cellsOrganelles – structures within a cell that allow it to live, grow, and reproduceCytoplasm – fluid that surrounds the organelles within a cellSmall size – almost all cells are too small to see with the naked eye
19AmoebasAn amoeba is a single celled (unicellular) organism. It cannot get large enough to be seen. As a cell gets larger, it needs more food and produces more waste. Therefore more material must be able to move in and out through the cell membrane.To keep up with these demands, a growing cell needs a larger surface area through which to exchange materials. As the cell’s volume increases, its outer surface grows too.Go to page 12 to help explain!!!Surface-to-Volume Ratio
20Benefits of being Multicellular A single cell as big as you would have an incredibly small surface-to-volume ratio and would not survive because its outer surface would be too small to allow in the materials needed.Multicellular organisms grow by producing MORE cells, not LARGER cells.An elephant has more cells than you, not larger cells.
21Many kinds of cellsHaving many different cells that are specialized for specific jobs allows multicellular organisms to perform more functions than unicellular organisms.Different kinds of cells can form tissues and organs with different functions.Some specialized cells: muscle cells, eye cells, brain cells….Be glad you are not UNICELLULAR! How boring!
22Two types of cells Prokaryotic Cells Eukaryotic Cells Also called bacteriaWorld’s smallest cellsNo nucleusCircular DNA (shaped like a rubber band)No membrane-covered organellesMore complexAll other cellsHave a nucleusHave membrane-covered organellesLinear DNA stored in the nucleus
24The Cell's Command Center -- The Nucleus Largest and most visible organelle in a eukaryotic cellSurrounded by a nuclear membrane for protectionStores DNA that has information on how to make all the cell’s proteins (almost all chemical reactions important to the cell’s life involve protein) Read more: List of Organelles | eHow.com
25The Energy Plant -- Mitochondria ATP (molecule that supplies energy to fuel the cell’s activities) made here from food moleculesBean shaped – surrounded by two membranesMust have oxygenHighly active cells (such as heart and liver) have thousandPowerhouse of the cell
26Protein Factory -- Ribosomes Make protein chains out of amino acidsSmallest but MOST abundant organelleNot covered with a membraneALL cells have ribosomes (prokaryotes included)
27The Cell’s Delivery System – Endoplasmic Reticulum Membrane-covered compartment that makes lipids and other materials for use inside and outside the cellBreaks down drugs and other damaging chemicalsInternal delivery systemLooks like flattened sacks stacked side by side
28Shipping– Golgi Complex Packaging -Vesicles Looks like the ER but is located closer to the cell membraneModifies lipids and proteins from the ER and delivers them to other parts of the cell or outside the cellVesicles are pieces of the Golgi complex that pinches off and stores the final products
29Trash Collector -- Lysosomes Specialized vesicles in animal cellsContain enzymesDestroy worn-out or damaged organellesGet rid of waste materials and protect the cell from foreign invadersIf the membrane of a lysosome opens, the enzymes will spill out into the cell and kill the cell. (How a tadpole loses its tail)
30Plant Cells -- Chloroplasts Only found in plants and algaeEnergy-converterHas two membranes and structures like stacked coins and contains chlorophyll – which makes the chloroplast greenChlorophyll traps the energy from sunlight and uses it to make sugar in the process photosynthesis.Mitochondria then use the sugar to make ATP.
31Cell Wall Found in plant cells Outside the cell membrane Made of cellulose (sugar)Provides strength and support to cell membrane
32Water cooler- Vacuoles Most plant cells have very large vacuoles.Membrane-coveredStores water and other liquidsWhen full, helps support the cellWhen empty, the cell shrivels (causing the plant to wilt)
33Homeostasis(1) The tendency of an organism or a cell to regulate its internal conditions, so as to stabilize health and functioning, regardless of the outside changing conditions(2) The ability of the body or a cell to seek and maintain a condition of equilibrium or stability within its internal environment when dealing with external changesIn humans, homeostasis happens when the body regulates body temperature in an effort to maintain an internal temperature around 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit. For example, we sweat to cool off during the hot summer days, and we shiver to produce heat during the cold winter season.
35Epithelial TissueEpithelial tissues consist of continuous sheets of cells that provide a protective covering over the whole bodyThey also form the lining membranes of internal organs, cavities, and passageways and cover internal organs
36Muscle TissueContracts or shortens to cause movement
37Nerve Tissue Carries message to and from the brain Allows us to see, hear, feel…….Makes up brain, spinal cord and nerves